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Nitrofurantoin monohydrate/macrocrystals

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Overview

What is Nitrofurantoin?

Nitrofurantoin, USP is an antibacterial agent specific for urinary tract infections. Nitrofurantoin capsules, USP (monohydrate/macrocrystals) are a hard gelatin capsule shell containing the equivalent of 100 mg of nitrofurantoin, USP in the form of 25 mg of nitrofurantoin macrocrystals and 75 mg of nitrofurantoin monohydrate.

The chemical name of nitrofurantoin macrocrystals is 1-[[[5-nitro-2-furanyl]methylene]amino]-2,4-imidazolidinedione. The chemical structure is the following:

The chemical name of nitrofurantoin monohydrate is 1-[[[5-nitro-2-furanyl]methylene]amino]-2,4- imidazolidinedione monohydrate. The chemical structure is the following:

Inactive Ingredients:

USP Dissolution Test is pending.



What does Nitrofurantoin look like?



What are the available doses of Nitrofurantoin?

Sorry No records found.

What should I talk to my health care provider before I take Nitrofurantoin?

Sorry No records found

How should I use Nitrofurantoin?

Nitrofurantoin capsules, USP (monohydrate/macrocrystals) are indicated only for the treatment of acute uncomplicated urinary tract infections (acute cystitis) caused by susceptible strains of or .

Nitrofurantoin is not indicated for the treatment of pyelonephritis or perinephric abscesses.

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of nitrofurantoin capsules, USP (monohydrate/macrocrystals) and other antibacterial drugs, nitrofurantoin capsules, USP (monohydrate/macrocrystals) should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

Nitrofurantoins lack the broader tissue distribution of other therapeutic agents approved for urinary tract infections. Consequently, many patients who are treated with nitrofurantoin capsules, USP (monohydrate/macrocrystals) are predisposed to persistence or reappearance of bacteriuria (see ). Urine specimens for culture and susceptibility testing should be obtained before and after completion of therapy. If persistence or reappearance of bacteriuria occurs after treatment with nitrofurantoin capsules, USP (monohydrate/macrocrystals), other therapeutic agents with broader tissue distribution should be selected. In considering the use of nitrofurantoin capsules, USP (monohydrate/macrocrystals), lower eradication rates should be balanced against the increased potential for systemic toxicity and for the development of antimicrobial resistance when agents with broader tissue distribution are utilized.

Nitrofurantoin capsules (monohydrate/macrocrystals) should be taken with food.

Adults and Pediatric Patients Over 12 Years:


What interacts with Nitrofurantoin?

Sorry No Records found


What are the warnings of Nitrofurantoin?

Sorry No Records found


What are the precautions of Nitrofurantoin?

Sorry No Records found


What are the side effects of Nitrofurantoin?

Sorry No records found


What should I look out for while using Nitrofurantoin?

Anuria, oliguria, or significant impairment of renal function (creatinine clearance under 60 mL per minute or clinically significant elevated serum creatinine) are contraindications. Treatment of this type of patient carries an increased risk of toxicity because of impaired excretion of the drug.

Because of the possibility of hemolytic anemia due to immature erythrocyte enzyme systems (glutathione instability), the drug is contraindicated in pregnant patients at term (38 to 42 weeks gestation), during labor and delivery, or when the onset of labor is imminent. For the same reason, the drug is contraindicated in neonates under one month of age.

Nitrofurantoin capsules (monohydrate/macrocrystals) are contraindicated in patients with a previous history of cholestatic jaundice/hepatic dysfunction associated with nitrofurantoin.

Nitrofurantoin capsules (monohydrate/macrocrystals) are also contraindicated in those patients with known hypersensitivity to nitrofurantoin.

Pulmonary reactions:

ACUTE, SUBACUTE, OR CHRONIC PULMONARY REACTIONS HAVE BEEN OBSERVED IN PATIENTS TREATED WITH NITROFURANTOIN. IF THESE REACTIONS OCCUR, NITROFURANTOIN SHOULD BE DISCONTINUED AND APPROPRIATE MEASURES TAKEN. REPORTS HAVE CITED PULMONARY REACTIONS AS A CONTRIBUTING CAUSE OF DEATH.

CHRONIC PULMONARY REACTIONS (DIFFUSE INTERSTITIAL PNEUMONITIS OR PULMONARY FIBROSIS, OR BOTH) CAN DEVELOP INSIDIOUSLY. THESE REACTIONS OCCUR RARELY AND GENERALLY IN PATIENTS RECEIVING THERAPY FOR SIX MONTHS OR LONGER. CLOSE MONITORING OF THE PULMONARY CONDITION OF PATIENTS RECEIVING LONG-TERM THERAPY IS WARRANTED AND REQUIRES THAT THE BENEFITS OF THERAPY BE WEIGHED AGAINST POTENTIAL RISKS (SEE ).

Hepatotoxicity:

Hepatic reactions, including hepatitis, cholestatic jaundice, chronic active hepatitis and hepatic necrosis, occur rarely. Fatalities have been reported. The onset of chronic active hepatitis may be insidious, and patients should be monitored periodically for changes in biochemical tests that would indicate liver injury. If hepatitis occurs, the drug should be withdrawn immediately and appropriate measures should be taken.

Neuropathy:

Peripheral neuropathy, which may become severe or irreversible, has occurred. Fatalities have been reported. Conditions such as renal impairment (creatinine clearance under 60 mL per minute or clinically significant elevated serum creatinine), anemia, diabetes mellitus, electrolyte imbalance, vitamin B deficiency and debilitating disease may enhance the occurrence of peripheral neuropathy. Patients receiving long-term therapy should be monitored periodically for changes in renal function.

Optic neuritis has been reported rarely in postmarketing experience with nitrofurantoin formulations.

Hemolytic anemia:

Cases of hemolytic anemia of the primaquine-sensitivity type have been induced by nitrofurantoin. Hemolysis appears to be linked to a glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in the red blood cells of the affected patients. This deficiency is found in 10 percent of Blacks and a small percentage of ethnic groups of Mediterranean and Near-Eastern origin. Hemolysis is an indication for discontinuing nitrofurantoin; hemolysis ceases when the drug is withdrawn.

Clostridium difficile

Clostridium difficile

C. difficile

C. difficile

C. difficile

If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.


What might happen if I take too much Nitrofurantoin?

Occasional incidents of acute overdosage of nitrofurantoin have not resulted in any specific symptoms other than vomiting. Induction of emesis is recommended. There is no specific antidote, but a high fluid intake should be maintained to promote urinary excretion of the drug. Nitrofurantoin is dialyzable.


How should I store and handle Nitrofurantoin?

Nitrofurantoin capsules, USP (monohydrate/macrocrystals), are supplied as a gray opaque cap and yellow opaque body imprinted axially “AN” in white ink on the cap and “478” in black ink on the body. NDC 60760-478-14 BOTTLE OF 14 Storage and Handling Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F); excursions permitted between 15° to 30°C (59° to 86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Dispense in tight container.Rx OnlyNitrofurantoin capsules, USP (monohydrate/macrocrystals), are supplied as a gray opaque cap and yellow opaque body imprinted axially “AN” in white ink on the cap and “478” in black ink on the body. NDC 60760-478-14 BOTTLE OF 14 Storage and Handling Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F); excursions permitted between 15° to 30°C (59° to 86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Dispense in tight container.Rx OnlyNitrofurantoin capsules, USP (monohydrate/macrocrystals), are supplied as a gray opaque cap and yellow opaque body imprinted axially “AN” in white ink on the cap and “478” in black ink on the body. NDC 60760-478-14 BOTTLE OF 14 Storage and Handling Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F); excursions permitted between 15° to 30°C (59° to 86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Dispense in tight container.Rx OnlyNitrofurantoin capsules, USP (monohydrate/macrocrystals), are supplied as a gray opaque cap and yellow opaque body imprinted axially “AN” in white ink on the cap and “478” in black ink on the body. NDC 60760-478-14 BOTTLE OF 14 Storage and Handling Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F); excursions permitted between 15° to 30°C (59° to 86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Dispense in tight container.Rx Only


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Clinical Information

Chemical Structure

No Image found
Clinical Pharmacology

Each nitrofurantoin capsule (monohydrate/macrocrystals) contains two forms of nitrofurantoin. Twenty-five percent is macrocrystalline nitrofurantoin, which has slower dissolution and absorption than nitrofurantoin monohydrate. The remaining 75% is nitrofurantoin monohydrate contained in a powder blend which, upon exposure to gastric and intestinal fluids, forms a gel matrix that releases nitrofurantoin over time. Based on urinary pharmacokinetic data, the extent and rate of urinary excretion of nitrofurantoin from the 100 mg nitrofurantoin capsule (monohydrate/macrocrystals) are similar to those of the 50 mg or 100 mg nitrofurantoin macrocrystals capsule. Approximately 20% to 25% of a single dose of nitrofurantoin is recovered from the urine unchanged over 24 hours.

Plasma nitrofurantoin concentrations after a single oral dose of the 100 mg nitrofurantoin capsule (monohydrate/macrocrystals) are low, with peak levels usually less than 1 mcg/mL. Nitrofurantoin is highly soluble in urine, to which it may impart a brown color. When nitrofurantoin is administered with food, the bioavailability of nitrofurantoin is increased by approximately 40%.

Non-Clinical Toxicology
Anuria, oliguria, or significant impairment of renal function (creatinine clearance under 60 mL per minute or clinically significant elevated serum creatinine) are contraindications. Treatment of this type of patient carries an increased risk of toxicity because of impaired excretion of the drug.

Because of the possibility of hemolytic anemia due to immature erythrocyte enzyme systems (glutathione instability), the drug is contraindicated in pregnant patients at term (38 to 42 weeks gestation), during labor and delivery, or when the onset of labor is imminent. For the same reason, the drug is contraindicated in neonates under one month of age.

Nitrofurantoin capsules (monohydrate/macrocrystals) are contraindicated in patients with a previous history of cholestatic jaundice/hepatic dysfunction associated with nitrofurantoin.

Nitrofurantoin capsules (monohydrate/macrocrystals) are also contraindicated in those patients with known hypersensitivity to nitrofurantoin.

Pulmonary reactions:

ACUTE, SUBACUTE, OR CHRONIC PULMONARY REACTIONS HAVE BEEN OBSERVED IN PATIENTS TREATED WITH NITROFURANTOIN. IF THESE REACTIONS OCCUR, NITROFURANTOIN SHOULD BE DISCONTINUED AND APPROPRIATE MEASURES TAKEN. REPORTS HAVE CITED PULMONARY REACTIONS AS A CONTRIBUTING CAUSE OF DEATH.

CHRONIC PULMONARY REACTIONS (DIFFUSE INTERSTITIAL PNEUMONITIS OR PULMONARY FIBROSIS, OR BOTH) CAN DEVELOP INSIDIOUSLY. THESE REACTIONS OCCUR RARELY AND GENERALLY IN PATIENTS RECEIVING THERAPY FOR SIX MONTHS OR LONGER. CLOSE MONITORING OF THE PULMONARY CONDITION OF PATIENTS RECEIVING LONG-TERM THERAPY IS WARRANTED AND REQUIRES THAT THE BENEFITS OF THERAPY BE WEIGHED AGAINST POTENTIAL RISKS (SEE ).

Hepatotoxicity:

Hepatic reactions, including hepatitis, cholestatic jaundice, chronic active hepatitis and hepatic necrosis, occur rarely. Fatalities have been reported. The onset of chronic active hepatitis may be insidious, and patients should be monitored periodically for changes in biochemical tests that would indicate liver injury. If hepatitis occurs, the drug should be withdrawn immediately and appropriate measures should be taken.

Neuropathy:

Peripheral neuropathy, which may become severe or irreversible, has occurred. Fatalities have been reported. Conditions such as renal impairment (creatinine clearance under 60 mL per minute or clinically significant elevated serum creatinine), anemia, diabetes mellitus, electrolyte imbalance, vitamin B deficiency and debilitating disease may enhance the occurrence of peripheral neuropathy. Patients receiving long-term therapy should be monitored periodically for changes in renal function.

Optic neuritis has been reported rarely in postmarketing experience with nitrofurantoin formulations.

Hemolytic anemia:

Cases of hemolytic anemia of the primaquine-sensitivity type have been induced by nitrofurantoin. Hemolysis appears to be linked to a glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in the red blood cells of the affected patients. This deficiency is found in 10 percent of Blacks and a small percentage of ethnic groups of Mediterranean and Near-Eastern origin. Hemolysis is an indication for discontinuing nitrofurantoin; hemolysis ceases when the drug is withdrawn.

Clostridium difficile

Clostridium difficile

C. difficile

C. difficile

C. difficile

If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.

Antacids containing magnesium trisilicate, when administered concomitantly with nitrofurantoin, reduce both the rate and extent of absorption. The mechanism for this interaction probably is adsorption of nitrofurantoin onto the surface of magnesium trisilicate.

Uricosuric drugs, such as probenecid and sulfinpyrazone, can inhibit renal tubular secretion of nitrofurantoin. The resulting increase in nitrofurantoin serum levels may increase toxicity, and the decreased urinary levels could lessen its efficacy as a urinary tract antibacterial.

DRUG/LABORATORY TEST INTERACTIONS

As a result of the presence of nitrofurantoin, a false-positive reaction for glucose in the urine may occur. This has been observed with Benedict's and Fehling's solutions but not with the glucose enzymatic test.

Information for Patients

Patients should be advised to take nitrofurantoin with food (ideally breakfast and dinner) to further enhance tolerance and improve drug absorption. Patients should be instructed to complete the full course of therapy; however, they should be advised to contact their physician if any unusual symptoms occur during therapy.

Patients should be advised not to use antacid preparations containing magnesium trisilicate while taking nitrofurantoin.

Patients should be counseled that antibacterial drugs including nitrofurantoin should only be used to treat bacterial infections. They do not treat viral infections (e.g., the common cold). When nitrofurantoin is prescribed to treat a bacterial infection, patients should be told that although it is common to feel better early in the course of therapy, the medication should be taken exactly as directed. Skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may (1) decrease the effectiveness of the immediate treatment and (2) increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable by nitrofurantoin or other antibacterial drugs in the future.

Diarrhea is a common problem caused by antibiotics which usually ends when the antibiotic is discontinued. Sometimes after starting treatment with antibiotics, patients can develop watery and bloody stools (with or without stomach cramps and fever) even as late as two or more months after having taken the last dose of the antibiotic. If this occurs, patients should contact their physician as soon as possible.

In clinical trials of nitrofurantoin, the most frequent clinical adverse events that were reported as possibly or probably drug-related were nausea (8%), headache (6%) and flatulence (1.5%). Additional clinical adverse events reported as possibly or probably drug-related occurred in less than 1% of patients studied and are listed below within each body system in order of decreasing frequency:

Gastrointestinal:

Neurologic:

Respiratory:

Allergic:

Dermatologic:

Miscellaneous:

The following additional clinical adverse events have been reported with the use of nitrofurantoin:

Gastrointestinal:

Neurologic:

Asthenia, vertigo and nystagmus also have been reported with the use of nitrofurantoin.

Benign intracranial hypertension (pseudotumor cerebri), confusion, depression, optic neuritis and psychotic reactions have been reported rarely. Bulging fontanels, as a sign of benign intracranial hypertension in infants, have been reported rarely.

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Reference

This information is obtained from the National Institute of Health's Standard Packaging Label drug database.
"https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/"

While we update our database periodically, we cannot guarantee it is always updated to the latest version.

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Professional

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Tips

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Interactions

Interactions

A total of 440 drugs (1549 brand and generic names) are known to interact with Imbruvica (ibrutinib). 228 major drug interactions (854 brand and generic names) 210 moderate drug interactions (691 brand and generic names) 2 minor drug interactions (4 brand and generic names) Show all medications in the database that may interact with Imbruvica (ibrutinib).