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Octreotide

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Overview

What is Octreotide?

Octreotide Acetate Injection, a cyclic octapeptide prepared as a clear sterile solution of octreotide, acetate salt, in a buffered acetate solution for administration by deep subcutaneous (intrafat) or intravenous injection.  Octreotide acetate, known chemically as L-Cysteinamide, D-phenylalanyl-L-cysteinyl-L-phenylalanyl-D-tryptophyl-L-lysyl-L-threonyl-N-[2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)propyl]-, cyclic (2→7)-disulfide; [R-(R*, R*)] acetate salt, is a long-acting octapeptide with pharmacologic actions mimicking those of the natural hormone somatostatin.

Octreotide Acetate Injection is available as: sterile 1 mL single dose vials in 3 strengths, containing 50, 100, or 500 mcg octreotide (as acetate), and sterile 5 mL multiple dose vials in 2 strengths, containing 200 and 1,000 mcg/mL of octreotide (as acetate).

Each mL of the single dose vial also contains:

sodium chloride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7 mg

glacial acetic acid, USP . . . . . . . . . . .  2 mg

sodium acetate trihydrate, USP . . . . .  2 mg

water for injection, USP . . . . . . .qs to  1 mL

Each mL of the multiple dose vials also contains:

sodium chloride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7 mg

glacial acetic acid, USP . . . . . . . . . . .   2 mg

sodium acetate trihydrate, USP . . . . .   2 mg

phenol, USP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5 mg

water for injection, USP . . . . . . . qs to   1 mL

The molecular weight of octreotide acetate is 1019.3 (free peptide, CHNOS) and its amino acid sequence is:

  



What does Octreotide look like?



What are the available doses of Octreotide?

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What should I talk to my health care provider before I take Octreotide?

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How should I use Octreotide?

Octreotide Acetate Injection is indicated to reduce blood levels of growth hormone and IGF-I (somatomedin C) in acromegaly patients who have had inadequate response to or cannot be treated with surgical resection, pituitary irradiation, and bromocriptine mesylate at maximally tolerated doses.  The goal is to achieve normalization of growth hormone and IGF-I (somatomedin C) levels (see ).  In patients with acromegaly, Octreotide Acetate Injection reduces growth hormone to within normal ranges in 50% of patients and reduces IGF-I (somatomedin C) to within normal ranges in 50% to 60% of patients.  Since the effects of pituitary irradiation may not become maximal for several years, adjunctive therapy with Octreotide Acetate Injection to reduce blood levels of growth hormone and IGF-I (somatomedin C) offers potential benefit before the effects of irradiation are manifested.

Improvement in clinical signs and symptoms or reduction in tumor size or rate of growth were not shown in clinical trials performed with Octreotide Acetate Injection; these trials were not optimally designed to detect such effects.

Octreotide Acetate Injection is indicated for the symptomatic treatment of patients with metastatic carcinoid tumors where it suppresses or inhibits the severe diarrhea and flushing episodes associated with the disease.

Octreotide Acetate Injection studies were not designed to show an effect on the size, rate of growth or development of metastases.

Octreotide Acetate Injection is indicated for the treatment of the profuse watery diarrhea associated with VIP-secreting tumors.  Octreotide Acetate Injection studies were not designed to show an effect on the size, rate of growth or development of metastases.

Octreotide Acetate Injection may be administered subcutaneously or intravenously.  Subcutaneous injection is the usual route of administration of Octreotide Acetate Injection for control of symptoms.  Pain with subcutaneous administration may be reduced by using the smallest volume that will deliver the desired dose.  Multiple subcutaneous injections at the same site within short periods of time should be avoided. Sites should be rotated in a systematic manner.

Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration.  Proper sterile technique should be used in the preparation of parenteral admixtures to minimize the possibility of microbial contamination.  

Octreotide Acetate Injection is stable in sterile isotonic saline solutions or sterile solutions of dextrose 5% in water for 24 hours.  It may be diluted in volumes of 50 to 200 mL and infused intravenously over 15 to 30 minutes or administered by IV push over 3 minutes.  In emergency situations (e.g., carcinoid crisis) it may be given by rapid bolus.

The initial dosage is usually 50 mcg administered twice or three times daily.  Upward dose titration is frequently required.  Dosage information for patients with specific tumors follows.

Dosage may be initiated at 50 mcg t.i.d.  Beginning with this low dose may permit adaptation to adverse gastrointestinal effects for patients who will require higher doses.  IGF-I (somatomedin C) levels every 2 weeks can be used to guide titration.  Alternatively, multiple growth hormone levels at 0 to 8 hours after Octreotide Acetate Injection administration permit more rapid titration of dose.  The goal is to achieve growth hormone levels less than 5 ng/mL or IGF-I (somatomedin C) levels less than 1.9 U/mL in males and less than 2.2 U/mL in females.  The dose most commonly found to be effective is 100 mcg t.i.d., but some patients require up to 500 mcg t.i.d. for maximum effectiveness.  Doses greater than 300 mcg/day seldom result in additional biochemical benefit, and if an increase in dose fails to provide additional benefit, the dose should be reduced.  IGF-I (somatomedin C) or growth hormone levels should be re-evaluated at 6-month intervals.

Octreotide Acetate Injection should be withdrawn yearly for approximately 4 weeks from patients who have received irradiation to assess disease activity.  If growth hormone or IGF-I (somatomedin C) levels increase and signs and symptoms recur, Octreotide Acetate Injection therapy may be resumed.

The suggested daily dosage of Octreotide Acetate Injection during the first 2 weeks of therapy ranges from 100 to 600 mcg/day in 2 to 4 divided doses (mean daily dosage is 300 mcg).  In the clinical studies, the daily maintenance dosage was approximately 450 mcg, but clinical and biochemical benefits were obtained in some patients with as little as 50 mcg, while others required doses up to 1,500 mcg/day.  However, experience with doses above 750 mcg/day is limited.

Daily dosages of 200 to 300 mcg in 2 to 4 divided doses are recommended during the initial 2 weeks of therapy (range 150 to 750 mcg) to control symptoms of the disease.  On an individual basis, dosage may be adjusted to achieve a therapeutic response, but usually doses above 450 mcg/day are not required.


What interacts with Octreotide?

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What are the warnings of Octreotide?

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What are the precautions of Octreotide?

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What are the side effects of Octreotide?

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Gallbladder Abnormalities

Gallbladder abnormalities, especially stones and/or biliary sludge, frequently develop in patients on chronic octreotide acetate therapy (see ).

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Cardiac

In acromegalics, sinus bradycardia (
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Gastrointestinal

Diarrhea, loose stools, nausea and abdominal discomfort were each seen in 34% to 61% of acromegalic patients in U.S. studies although only 2.6% of the patients discontinued therapy due to these symptoms.  These symptoms were seen in 5% to 10% of patients with other disorders.

The frequency of these symptoms was not dose-related, but diarrhea and abdominal discomfort generally resolved more quickly in patients treated with 300 mcg/day than in those treated with 750 mcg/day.  Vomiting, flatulence, abnormal stools, abdominal distention, and constipation were each seen in less than 10% of patients.

In rare instances, gastrointestinal side effects may resemble acute intestinal obstruction, with progressive abdominal distension, severe epigastric pain, abdominal tenderness and guarding.

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Hypo/Hyperglycemia

Hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia occurred in 3% and 16% of acromegalic patients, respectively, but only in about 1.5% of other patients.  Symptoms of hypoglycemia were noted in approximately 2% of patients.

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Hypothyroidism

In acromegalics, biochemical hypothyroidism alone occurred in 12% while goiter occurred in 6% during octreotide acetate therapy (see ).  In patients without acromegaly, hypothyroidism has only been reported in several isolated patients and goiter has not been reported.

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Other Adverse Events

Pain on injection was reported in 7.7%, headache in 6% and dizziness in 5%.  Pancreatitis was also observed (see and ).

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Other Adverse Events 1% to 4%

Other events (relationship to drug not established), each observed in 1% to 4% of patients, included fatigue, weakness, pruritus, joint pain, backache, urinary tract infection, cold symptoms, flu symptoms, injection site hematoma, bruise, edema, flushing, blurred vision, pollakiuria, fat malabsorption, hair loss, visual disturbance and depression.

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Other Adverse Events

Events reported in less than 1% of patients and for which relationship to drug is not established are listed: hepatitis, jaundice, increase in liver enzymes, GI bleeding, hemorrhoids, appendicitis, gastric/peptic ulcer, gallbladder polyp; rash, cellulitis, petechiae, urticaria, basal cell carcinoma; arthritis, joint effusion, muscle pain, Raynaud’s phenomenon; chest pain, shortness of breath, thrombophlebitis, ischemia, congestive heart failure, hypertension, hypertensive reaction, palpitations, orthostatic BP decrease, tachycardia; anxiety, libido decrease, syncope, tremor, seizure, vertigo, Bell’s Palsy, paranoia, pituitary apoplexy, increased intraocular pressure, amnesia, hearing loss, neuritis; pneumonia, pulmonary nodule, status asthmaticus; galactorrhea, hypoadrenalism, diabetes insipidus, gynecomastia, amenorrhea, polymenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, vaginitis; nephrolithiasis, hematuria; anemia, iron deficiency, epistaxis; otitis, allergic reaction, increased CK, weight loss.

Evaluation of 20 patients treated for at least 6 months has failed to demonstrate titers of antibodies exceeding background levels.  However, antibody titers to octreotide acetate were subsequently reported in three patients and resulted in prolonged duration of drug action in two patients.  Anaphylactoid reactions, including anaphylactic shock, have been reported in several patients receiving octreotide acetate.

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Postmarketing Experience

The following adverse reactions have been identified during the postapproval use of octreotide acetate.  Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

     Gastrointestinal:

thrombocytopenia


What should I look out for while using Octreotide?

Sensitivity to this drug or any of its components.

Single doses of octreotide acetate have been shown to inhibit gallbladder contractility and decrease bile secretion in normal volunteers.  In clinical trials (primarily patients with acromegaly or psoriasis), the incidence of biliary tract abnormalities was 63% (27% gallstones, 24% sludge without stones, 12% biliary duct dilatation).  The incidence of stones or sludge in patients who received octreotide acetate for 12 months or longer was 52%. Less than 2% of patients treated with octreotide acetate for 1 month or less developed gallstones.  The incidence of gallstones did not appear related to age, sex or dose.  Like patients without gallbladder abnormalities, the majority of patients developing gallbladder abnormalities on ultrasound had gastrointestinal symptoms.  The symptoms were not specific for gallbladder disease.  A few patients developed acute cholecystitis, ascending cholangitis, biliary obstruction, cholestatic hepatitis, or pancreatitis during octreotide acetate therapy or following its withdrawal. One patient developed ascending cholangitis during octreotide acetate therapy and died.


What might happen if I take too much Octreotide?

A limited number of accidental overdoses of octreotide acetate in adults have been reported.  In adults, the doses ranged from 2,400 to 6,000 micrograms/day administered by continuous infusion (100 to 250 micrograms/hour) or subcutaneously (1,500 micrograms t.i.d.). Adverse events in some patients included arrhythmia, hypotension, cardiac arrest, brain hypoxia, pancreatitis, hepatitis steatosis, hepatomegaly, lactic acidosis, flushing, diarrhea, lethargy, weakness, and weight loss.

Octreotide acetate injection given in intravenous boluses of 1 mg (1,000 mcg) to healthy volunteers did not result in serious ill effects, nor did doses of 30 mg (30,000 mcg) given intravenously over 20 minutes and of 120 mg (120,000 mcg) given intravenously over 8 hours to research patients.

If overdose occurs, symptomatic management is indicated. Up-to-date information about the treatment of overdose can often be obtained from the National Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222.


How should I store and handle Octreotide?

Store at 20° to 25° C (68° to 77° F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in the USP using a child-resistant closure. Store at 20° to 25° C (68° to 77° F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in the USP using a child-resistant closure. Octreotide Acetate Injection is available in 1 mL single dose vials packaged in tens in covered trays and 5 mL multiple dose vials packaged in individual cartons as follows:


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Clinical Information

Chemical Structure

No Image found
Clinical Pharmacology

Octreotide acetate exerts pharmacologic actions similar to the natural hormone, somatostatin.  It is an even more potent inhibitor of growth hormone, glucagon, and insulin than somatostatin.  Like somatostatin, it also suppresses LH response to GnRH, decreases splanchnic blood flow, and inhibits release of serotonin, gastrin, vasoactive intestinal peptide, secretin, motilin, and pancreatic polypeptide.

By virtue of these pharmacological actions, octreotide acetate has been used to treat the symptoms associated with metastatic carcinoid tumors (flushing and diarrhea), and Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) secreting adenomas (watery diarrhea). 

Octreotide acetate substantially reduces growth hormone and/or IGF-I (somatomedin C) levels in patients with acromegaly.

Single doses of octreotide acetate have been shown to inhibit gallbladder contractility and to decrease bile secretion in normal volunteers.  In controlled clinical trials the incidence of gallstone or biliary sludge formation was markedly increased (see ).

Octreotide acetate suppresses secretion of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH).

Non-Clinical Toxicology
Sensitivity to this drug or any of its components.

Single doses of octreotide acetate have been shown to inhibit gallbladder contractility and decrease bile secretion in normal volunteers.  In clinical trials (primarily patients with acromegaly or psoriasis), the incidence of biliary tract abnormalities was 63% (27% gallstones, 24% sludge without stones, 12% biliary duct dilatation).  The incidence of stones or sludge in patients who received octreotide acetate for 12 months or longer was 52%. Less than 2% of patients treated with octreotide acetate for 1 month or less developed gallstones.  The incidence of gallstones did not appear related to age, sex or dose.  Like patients without gallbladder abnormalities, the majority of patients developing gallbladder abnormalities on ultrasound had gastrointestinal symptoms.  The symptoms were not specific for gallbladder disease.  A few patients developed acute cholecystitis, ascending cholangitis, biliary obstruction, cholestatic hepatitis, or pancreatitis during octreotide acetate therapy or following its withdrawal. One patient developed ascending cholangitis during octreotide acetate therapy and died.

Octreotide acetate has been associated with alterations in nutrient absorption, so it may have an effect on absorption of orally administered drugs.  Concomitant administration of octreotide acetate with cyclosporine may decrease blood levels of cyclosporine and result in transplant rejection.

Patients receiving insulin, oral hypoglycemic agents, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, or agents to control fluid and electrolyte balance, may require dose adjustments of these therapeutic agents.

Concomitant administration of octreotide and bromocriptine increases the availability of bromocriptine.  Limited published data indicate that somatostatin analogs might decrease the metabolic clearance of compounds known to be metabolized by cytochrome P450 enzymes, which may be due to the suppression of growth hormones.  Since it cannot be excluded that octreotide may have this effect, other drugs mainly metabolized by CYP3A4 and which have a low therapeutic index (e.g., quinidine, terfenadine) should therefore be used with caution.

Octreotide acetate alters the balance between the counter-regulatory hormones, insulin, glucagon and growth hormone, which may result in hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia.  Octreotide acetate also suppresses secretion of thyroid stimulating hormone, which may result in hypothyroidism.  Cardiac conduction abnormalities have also occurred during treatment with octreotide acetate.  However, the incidence of these adverse events during long-term therapy was determined vigorously only in acromegaly patients who, due to their underlying disease and/or the subsequent treatment they receive, are at an increased risk for the development of diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, and cardiovascular disease.  Although the degree to which these abnormalities are related to octreotide acetate therapy is not clear, new abnormalities of glycemic control, thyroid function and ECG developed during octreotide acetate therapy as described below.

Risk of Pregnancy with Normalization of IGF-1 and GH

The hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia which occurs during octreotide acetate therapy is usually mild, but may result in overt diabetes mellitus or necessitate dose changes in insulin or other hypoglycemic agents. Hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia occurred on octreotide acetate in 3% and 16% of acromegalic patients, respectively.  Severe hyperglycemia, subsequent pneumonia, and death following initiation of octreotide acetate therapy was reported in one patient with no history of hyperglycemia.

In patients with concomitant Type I diabetes mellitus, octreotide acetate is likely to affect glucose regulation, and insulin requirements may be reduced.  Symptomatic hypoglycemia, which may be severe, has been reported in these patients.  In non-diabetics and Type II diabetics with partially intact insulin reserves, octreotide acetate administration may result in decreases in plasma insulin levels and hyperglycemia.   It is therefore recommended that glucose tolerance and antidiabetic treatment be periodically monitored during therapy with these drugs.

In acromegalic patients, 12% developed biochemical hypothyroidism only, 8% developed goiter, and 4% required initiation of thyroid replacement therapy while receiving octreotide acetate.  Baseline and periodic assessment of thyroid function (TSH, total and/or free T) is recommended during chronic therapy.

In acromegalics, bradycardia (
Several cases of pancreatitis have been reported in patients receiving octreotide acetate therapy.

Octreotide acetate may alter absorption of dietary fats in some patients.

In patients with severe renal failure requiring dialysis, the half-life of octreotide acetate may be increased, necessitating adjustment of the maintenance dosage.

Depressed vitamin B levels and abnormal Schilling’s tests have been observed in some patients receiving octreotide acetate therapy, and monitoring of vitamin B levels is recommended during chronic octreotide acetate therapy.

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Reference

This information is obtained from the National Institute of Health's Standard Packaging Label drug database.
"https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/"

While we update our database periodically, we cannot guarantee it is always updated to the latest version.

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Professional

Clonazepam Description Each single-scored tablet, for oral administration, contains 0.5 mg, 1 mg, or 2 mg Clonazepam, USP, a benzodiazepine. Each tablet also contains corn starch, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and povidone. Clonazepam tablets USP 0.5 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake. Clonazepam tablets USP 1 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake, as well as FD&C Blue No. 1 Aluminum Lake. Chemically, Clonazepam, USP is 5-(o-chlorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-7-nitro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one. It is a light yellow crystalline powder. It has the following structural formula: C15H10ClN3O3 M.W. 315.72
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Tips

Tips

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Interactions

Interactions

A total of 440 drugs (1549 brand and generic names) are known to interact with Imbruvica (ibrutinib). 228 major drug interactions (854 brand and generic names) 210 moderate drug interactions (691 brand and generic names) 2 minor drug interactions (4 brand and generic names) Show all medications in the database that may interact with Imbruvica (ibrutinib).