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Osmitrol

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Overview

What is Osmitrol?

OSMITROL Injection (Mannitol Injection, USP) is a sterile, nonpyrogenic solution of Mannitol, USP in a single dose container for intravenous administration. It contains no antimicrobial agents. Mannitol** is a six carbon sugar alcohol prepared commercially by the reduction of dextrose. Although virtually inert metabolically in humans, it occurs naturally in fruits and vegetables. Mannitol is an obligatory osmotic diuretic. The pH is adjusted with sodium hydroxide or hydrochloric acid. Composition, osmolarity, and pH are shown in Table 1

The VIAFLEX plastic container is fabricated from a specially formulated polyvinyl chloride (PL 146 Plastic). The amount of water that can permeate from inside the container into the overwrap is insufficient to affect the solution significantly. Solutions in contact with the plastic container can leach out certain of its chemical components in very small amounts within the expiration period, e.g., di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), up to 5 parts per million. However, the safety of the plastic has been confirmed in tests in animals according to USP biological tests for plastic containers as well as by tissue culture toxicity studies.



What does Osmitrol look like?



What are the available doses of Osmitrol?

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What should I talk to my health care provider before I take Osmitrol?

Sorry No records found

How should I use Osmitrol?

OSMITROL Injection (Mannitol Injection, USP) is indicated for:

The promotion of diuresis, in the prevention and/or treatment of the oliguric phase of acute renal failure before irreversible renal failure becomes established;

The reduction of intracranial pressure and treatment of cerebral edema by reducing brain mass;

The reduction of elevated intraocular pressure when the pressure cannot be lowered by other means, and

Promoting the urinary excretion of toxic substances.

OSMITROL Injection (Mannitol Injection, USP) should be administered only by intravenous infusion. The total dosage, concentration, and rate of administration should be governed by the nature and severity of the condition being treated, fluid requirement, and urinary output. The usual adult dosage ranges from 20 to 100 g in a 24 hour period, but in most instances an adequate response will be achieved at a dosage of approximately 50 to 100 g in a 24 hour period. The rate of administration is usually adjusted to maintain a urine flow of at least 30 to 50 mL/hour. This outline of administration and dosage is only a general guide to therapy.

Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration whenever solution and container permit. Use of a final filter is recommended during administration of all parenteral solutions, where possible.

Test Dose: A test dose of mannitol should be given prior to instituting OSMITROL Injection (Mannitol Injection, USP) therapy for patients with marked oliguria, or those believed to have inadequate renal function. Such a test dose may be approximately 0.2 g/kg body weight (about 75 mL of a 20% solution or 100 mL of a 15% solution) infused in a period of three to five minutes to produce a urine flow of at least 30 to 50 mL/hour. If urine flow does not increase, a second test dose may be given; if there is an inadequate response, the patient should be reevaluated.

Prevention of Acute Renal Failure (Oliguria): When used during cardiovascular and other types of surgery, 50 to 100 g of mannitol as a 5, 10, or 15% solution may be given. The concentration will depend upon the fluid requirements of the patient.

Treatment of Oliguria: The usual dose for treatment of oliguria is 100 g administered as a 15 or 20% solution.

Reduction of Intraocular Pressure: A dose of 1.5 to 2.0 g/kg as a 20% solution (7.5 to 10 mL/kg) or as a 15% solution (10 to 13 mL/kg) may be given over a period as short as 30 minutes in order to obtain a prompt and maximal effect. When used preoperatively the dose should be given one to one and one-half hours before surgery to achieve maximal reduction of intraocular pressure before operation.

Reduction of Intracranial Pressure: Usually a maximum reduction in intracranial pressure in adults can be achieved with a dose of 0.25 g/kg given not more frequently than every six to eight hours. An osmotic gradient between the blood and cerebrospinal fluid of approximately 10 mOsmol will yield a satisfactory reduction in intracranial pressure.

Adjunctive Therapy for Intoxications: As an agent to promote diuresis in intoxications, 5%, 10%, 15% or 20% mannitol is indicated. The concentration will depend upon the fluid requirement and urinary output of the patient.

Measurement of glomerular filtration rate by creatinine clearance may be useful for determination of dosage.

All injections in VIAFLEX containers are intended for intravenous administration using sterile equipment.

The use of supplemental additive medication is not recommended.


What interacts with Osmitrol?

OSMITROL Injection (Mannitol Injection, USP) is contraindicated in patients with:


Well established anuria due to severe renal disease,


Severe pulmonary congestion or frank pulmonary edema,


Active intracranial bleeding except during craniotomy,


Severe dehydration,


Progressive renal damage or dysfunction after institution of mannitol therapy, including increasing oliguria and azotemia, and


Progressive heart failure or pulmonary congestion after institution of mannitol therapy.



What are the warnings of Osmitrol?

Indium In 111 oxyquinoline labeled autologous leukocytes should be used only when the benefit to be obtained exceeds the risks involved in children under eighteen years of age owing to the high radiation burden and the potential for delayed manifestation of long-term adverse effects.

In patients with severe impairment of renal function, a test dose should be utilized (see ). A second test dose may be tried if there is an inadequate response, but no more than two test doses should be attempted.

The obligatory diuretic response following rapid infusion of 15% or 20% mannitol injection may further aggravate preexisting hemoconcentration. Excessive loss of water and electrolytes may lead to serious imbalances. Serum sodium and potassium should be carefully monitored during mannitol administration.

If urine output continues to decline during mannitol infusion, the patient’s clinical status should be closely reviewed and mannitol infusion suspended if necessary. Accumulation of mannitol may result in overexpansion of the extracellular fluid which may intensify existing or latent congestive heart failure.

Excessive loss of water and electrolytes may lead to serious imbalances. With continued administration of mannitol, loss of water in excess of electrolytes can cause hypernatremia. Electrolyte measurements, including sodium and potassium, are therefore, of vital importance in monitoring the infusion of mannitol.

Osmotic nephrosis, a reversible vacuolization of the tubules of unknown clinical significance, may proceed to severe irreversible nephrosis, so that the renal function must be closely monitored during mannitol infusion.


What are the precautions of Osmitrol?

The cardiovascular status of the patient should be carefully evaluated before rapidly administering mannitol since sudden expansion of the extracellular fluid may lead to fulminating congestive heart failure.

Shift of sodium free intracellular fluid into the extracellular compartment following mannitol infusion may lower serum sodium concentration and aggravate preexisting hyponatremia.

By sustaining diuresis, mannitol administration may obscure and intensify inadequate hydration or hypovolemia.

Electrolyte free mannitol injections should not be given conjointly with blood. If it is essential that blood be given simultaneously, at least 20 mEq of sodium chloride should be added to each liter of mannitol solution to avoid pseudoagglutination.

When exposed to low temperatures, solutions of mannitol may crystallize. Concentrations greater than 15% have a greater tendency to crystallization. Inspect for crystals prior to administration. If crystals are visible, redissolve by warming the solution up to 70°C, with agitation. Allow the solution to cool to room temperature before reinspection for crystals. Administer intravenously using sterile, administration set.

Laboratory Tests

Although blood levels of mannitol can be measured, there is little if any clinical virtue in doing so. The appropriate monitoring of blood levels of sodium and potassium; degree of hemoconcentration or hemodilution, if any; indices of renal, cardiac and pulmonary function are paramount in avoiding excessive fluid and electrolyte shifts. The routine features of physical examination and clinical chemistries suffice in achieving an adequate degree of appropriate patient monitoring.

Pregnancy

Nursing Mothers

It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when mannitol is administered to a nursing woman.

Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness in children below the age of 12 have not been established.

Usage in Children

Dosage requirements for patients 12 years of age and under have not been established.

Geriatric Use

Clinical studies of OSMITROL Injection (Mannitol Injection, USP) did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.

This drug is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function.


What are the side effects of Osmitrol?

Extensive use of mannitol over the last several decades has produced recorded adverse events, in a variety of clinical settings, that are isolated or idiosyncratic in nature. None of these adverse reactions have occurred with any great frequency nor with any security in attributing them to mannitol.

The inability to clearly exclude the drug related nature of such events in these isolated reports prompts the necessity to list the reactions that have been observed in patients during or following mannitol infusion. In this fashion, patients have exhibited nausea, vomiting, rhinitis, local pain, skin necrosis and thrombophlebitis at the site of injection, chills, dizziness, urticaria, hypotension, hypertension, tachycardia, fever and angina-like chest pains.

Of far greater clinical significance is a variety of events that are related to inappropriate recognition and monitoring of fluid shifts. These are not intrinsic adverse reactions to the drug but the consequence of manipulating osmolarity by any agency in a therapeutically inappropriate manner. Failure to recognize severe impairment of renal function with the high likelihood of nondiuretic response can lead to aggravated dehydration of tissues and increased vascular fluid load. Induced diuresis in the presence of preexisting hemoconcentration and preexisting deficiency of water and electrolytes can lead to serious imbalances. Expansion of the extracellular space can aggravate cardiac decompensation or induce it in the presence of latent heart failure. Pulmonary congestion or edema can be seriously aggravated with the expansion of the extracellular and therefore intravascular fluid load. Hemodilution and dilution of the extracellular fluid space by osmotic shift of water can induce or aggravate preexisting hyponatremia.

If unrecognized, such fluid and/or electrolyte shift can produce the reported adverse reactions of pulmonary congestion, acidosis, electrolyte loss, dryness of mouth, thirst, edema, headache, blurred vision, convulsions and congestive cardiac failure.

These are not truly adverse reactions to the drug and can be appropriately prevented by evaluation of degree of renal failure with a test dose response to mannitol when indicated; evaluation of hypervolemia and hypovolemia; sodium and potassium levels; hemodilution or hemoconcentration; and evaluation of renal, cardiac and pulmonary function at the onset of therapy.


What should I look out for while using Osmitrol?

OSMITROL Injection (Mannitol Injection, USP) is contraindicated in patients with:

Well established anuria due to severe renal disease,

Severe pulmonary congestion or frank pulmonary edema,

Active intracranial bleeding except during craniotomy,

Severe dehydration,

Progressive renal damage or dysfunction after institution of mannitol therapy, including increasing oliguria and azotemia, and

Progressive heart failure or pulmonary congestion after institution of mannitol therapy.

In patients with severe impairment of renal function, a test dose should be utilized (see ). A second test dose may be tried if there is an inadequate response, but no more than two test doses should be attempted.

The obligatory diuretic response following rapid infusion of 15% or 20% mannitol injection may further aggravate preexisting hemoconcentration. Excessive loss of water and electrolytes may lead to serious imbalances. Serum sodium and potassium should be carefully monitored during mannitol administration.

If urine output continues to decline during mannitol infusion, the patient’s clinical status should be closely reviewed and mannitol infusion suspended if necessary. Accumulation of mannitol may result in overexpansion of the extracellular fluid which may intensify existing or latent congestive heart failure.

Excessive loss of water and electrolytes may lead to serious imbalances. With continued administration of mannitol, loss of water in excess of electrolytes can cause hypernatremia. Electrolyte measurements, including sodium and potassium, are therefore, of vital importance in monitoring the infusion of mannitol.

Osmotic nephrosis, a reversible vacuolization of the tubules of unknown clinical significance, may proceed to severe irreversible nephrosis, so that the renal function must be closely monitored during mannitol infusion.


What might happen if I take too much Osmitrol?

Sorry No Records found


How should I store and handle Osmitrol?

Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15° to 30°C (59° to 86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].OSMITROL Injection (Mannitol Injection, USP) in VIAFLEX plastic containers is available as follows: Exposure of pharmaceutical products to heat should be minimized. Avoid excessive heat. It is recommended the product be stored at room temperature (25°C); brief exposure up to 40°C does not adversely affect the product.OSMITROL Injection (Mannitol Injection, USP) in VIAFLEX plastic containers is available as follows: Exposure of pharmaceutical products to heat should be minimized. Avoid excessive heat. It is recommended the product be stored at room temperature (25°C); brief exposure up to 40°C does not adversely affect the product.


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Clinical Information

Chemical Structure

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Clinical Pharmacology

OSMITROL Injection (Mannitol Injection, USP) is one of the nonelectrolyte, obligatory, osmotic diuretics. It is freely filterable at the renal glomerulus, only poorly reabsorbed by the renal tubule, not secreted by the tubule, and is pharmacologically inert.

Mannitol, when administered intravenously, exerts its osmotic effect as a solute of relatively small molecular size being largely confined to the extracellular space. Only relatively small amounts of the dose administered is metabolized. Mannitol is readily diffused through the glomerulus of the kidney over a wide range of normal and impaired kidney function. In this fashion, approximately 80% of a 100 gram dose of mannitol will appear in the urine in three hours with lesser amounts thereafter. Even at peak concentrations, mannitol will exhibit less than 10% of tubular reabsorption and is not secreted by tubular cells. Mannitol will hinder tubular reabsorption of water and enhance excretion of sodium and chloride by elevating the osmolarity of the glomerular filtrate.

This increase in extracellular osmolarity effected by the intravenous administration of mannitol will induce the movement of intracellular water to the extracellular and vascular spaces. This action underlies the role of mannitol in reducing intracranial pressure, intracranial edema, and elevated intraocular pressure.

Non-Clinical Toxicology
OSMITROL Injection (Mannitol Injection, USP) is contraindicated in patients with:

Well established anuria due to severe renal disease,

Severe pulmonary congestion or frank pulmonary edema,

Active intracranial bleeding except during craniotomy,

Severe dehydration,

Progressive renal damage or dysfunction after institution of mannitol therapy, including increasing oliguria and azotemia, and

Progressive heart failure or pulmonary congestion after institution of mannitol therapy.

In patients with severe impairment of renal function, a test dose should be utilized (see ). A second test dose may be tried if there is an inadequate response, but no more than two test doses should be attempted.

The obligatory diuretic response following rapid infusion of 15% or 20% mannitol injection may further aggravate preexisting hemoconcentration. Excessive loss of water and electrolytes may lead to serious imbalances. Serum sodium and potassium should be carefully monitored during mannitol administration.

If urine output continues to decline during mannitol infusion, the patient’s clinical status should be closely reviewed and mannitol infusion suspended if necessary. Accumulation of mannitol may result in overexpansion of the extracellular fluid which may intensify existing or latent congestive heart failure.

Excessive loss of water and electrolytes may lead to serious imbalances. With continued administration of mannitol, loss of water in excess of electrolytes can cause hypernatremia. Electrolyte measurements, including sodium and potassium, are therefore, of vital importance in monitoring the infusion of mannitol.

Osmotic nephrosis, a reversible vacuolization of the tubules of unknown clinical significance, may proceed to severe irreversible nephrosis, so that the renal function must be closely monitored during mannitol infusion.

ACE-inhibitors

Reports suggest that NSAIDs may diminish the antihypertensive effect of ACE-inhibitors.  This interaction should be given consideration in patients taking NSAIDs concomitantly with ACE-inhibitors.

Antacids and Sucralfate

Concomitant administration of some antacids (magnesium oxide or aluminum hydroxide) and sucralfate can delay the absorption of naproxen.

Aspirin

When naproxen as naproxen tablets, administered with aspirin, its protein binding is reduced, although the clearance of free naproxen is not altered. The clinical significance of this interaction is not known; however, as with other NSAIDs, concomitant administration of naproxen and aspirin is not generally recommended because of the potential of increased adverse effects.

Cholestyramine

As with other NSAIDs, concomitant administration of cholestyramine can delay the absorption of naproxen.

Diuretics

Clinical studies, as well as postmarketing observations, have shown that naproxen tablets can reduce the natriuretic effect of furosemide and thiazides in some patients. This response has been attributed to inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis. During concomitant therapy with NSAIDs, the patient should be observed closely for signs of renal failure (see ), as well as to assure diuretic efficacy.

Lithium

NSAIDs have produced an elevation of plasma lithium levels and a reduction in renal   lithium clearance. The mean minimum lithium concentration increased 15% and the renal clearance was decreased by approximately 20%. These effects have been attributed to   inhibition   of   renal   prostaglandin synthesis by the NSAID. Thus, when NSAIDs and lithium are administered concurrently, subjects should be observed carefully for signs of lithium toxicity.

Methotrexate

NSAIDs have been reported to competitively inhibit methotrexate accumulation in rabbit kidney slices. Naproxen and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have been reported to reduce the tubular secretion of methotrexate in an animal model.  This may indicate that they could enhance the toxicity of methotrexate. Caution should be used when NSAIDs are administered concomitantly with methotrexate.

Warfarin

The effects of warfarin and NSAIDs on GI bleeding are synergistic, such that users of both drugs together have a risk of serious GI bleeding higher than users of either drug alone. No significant interactions have been observed in clinical studies with naproxen and coumarin-type anticoagulants.  However, caution is advised since interactions have been seen with other nonsteroidal agents of this class. The free fraction of warfarin may increase substantially in some subjects and naproxen interferes with platelet function.

Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)

There is an increased risk of gastrointestinal bleeding when selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are combined with NSAIDs.  Caution should be used when NSAIDs are administered concomitantly with SSRIs.

Other Information Concerning Drug Interactions

Naproxen is highly bound to plasma albumin; it thus has a theoretical potential for interaction with other albumin-bound drugs such as coumarin­type anticoagulants, sulphonylureas, hydantoins, other NSAIDs, and aspirin. Patients simultaneously receiving naproxen and a hydantoin, sulphonamide or sulphonylurea should be observed for adjustment of dose if required.

Naproxen and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can reduce the antihypertensive effect of propranolol and other beta-blockers.

Probenecid given concurrently increases naproxen anion plasma levels and extends its plasma half-life significantly.

The cardiovascular status of the patient should be carefully evaluated before rapidly administering mannitol since sudden expansion of the extracellular fluid may lead to fulminating congestive heart failure.

Shift of sodium free intracellular fluid into the extracellular compartment following mannitol infusion may lower serum sodium concentration and aggravate preexisting hyponatremia.

By sustaining diuresis, mannitol administration may obscure and intensify inadequate hydration or hypovolemia.

Electrolyte free mannitol injections should not be given conjointly with blood. If it is essential that blood be given simultaneously, at least 20 mEq of sodium chloride should be added to each liter of mannitol solution to avoid pseudoagglutination.

When exposed to low temperatures, solutions of mannitol may crystallize. Concentrations greater than 15% have a greater tendency to crystallization. Inspect for crystals prior to administration. If crystals are visible, redissolve by warming the solution up to 70°C, with agitation. Allow the solution to cool to room temperature before reinspection for crystals. Administer intravenously using sterile, administration set.

Extensive use of mannitol over the last several decades has produced recorded adverse events, in a variety of clinical settings, that are isolated or idiosyncratic in nature. None of these adverse reactions have occurred with any great frequency nor with any security in attributing them to mannitol.

The inability to clearly exclude the drug related nature of such events in these isolated reports prompts the necessity to list the reactions that have been observed in patients during or following mannitol infusion. In this fashion, patients have exhibited nausea, vomiting, rhinitis, local pain, skin necrosis and thrombophlebitis at the site of injection, chills, dizziness, urticaria, hypotension, hypertension, tachycardia, fever and angina-like chest pains.

Of far greater clinical significance is a variety of events that are related to inappropriate recognition and monitoring of fluid shifts. These are not intrinsic adverse reactions to the drug but the consequence of manipulating osmolarity by any agency in a therapeutically inappropriate manner. Failure to recognize severe impairment of renal function with the high likelihood of nondiuretic response can lead to aggravated dehydration of tissues and increased vascular fluid load. Induced diuresis in the presence of preexisting hemoconcentration and preexisting deficiency of water and electrolytes can lead to serious imbalances. Expansion of the extracellular space can aggravate cardiac decompensation or induce it in the presence of latent heart failure. Pulmonary congestion or edema can be seriously aggravated with the expansion of the extracellular and therefore intravascular fluid load. Hemodilution and dilution of the extracellular fluid space by osmotic shift of water can induce or aggravate preexisting hyponatremia.

If unrecognized, such fluid and/or electrolyte shift can produce the reported adverse reactions of pulmonary congestion, acidosis, electrolyte loss, dryness of mouth, thirst, edema, headache, blurred vision, convulsions and congestive cardiac failure.

These are not truly adverse reactions to the drug and can be appropriately prevented by evaluation of degree of renal failure with a test dose response to mannitol when indicated; evaluation of hypervolemia and hypovolemia; sodium and potassium levels; hemodilution or hemoconcentration; and evaluation of renal, cardiac and pulmonary function at the onset of therapy.

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Reference

This information is obtained from the National Institute of Health's Standard Packaging Label drug database.
"https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/"

While we update our database periodically, we cannot guarantee it is always updated to the latest version.

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Professional

Clonazepam Description Each single-scored tablet, for oral administration, contains 0.5 mg, 1 mg, or 2 mg Clonazepam, USP, a benzodiazepine. Each tablet also contains corn starch, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and povidone. Clonazepam tablets USP 0.5 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake. Clonazepam tablets USP 1 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake, as well as FD&C Blue No. 1 Aluminum Lake. Chemically, Clonazepam, USP is 5-(o-chlorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-7-nitro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one. It is a light yellow crystalline powder. It has the following structural formula: C15H10ClN3O3 M.W. 315.72
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Tips

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Interactions

Interactions

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