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OXYTOCIN

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Overview

What is Oxytocin?

Each mL of Oxytocin Injection, USP (synthetic), intended for intravenous infusion or intramuscular injection, possesses an oxytocic activity equivalent to 10 USP Oxytocin Units and contains chlorobutanol anhydrous (chloral derivative) 0.5%.  This product may contain up to 12.5% decomposition products/impurities.  Oxytocin injection (synthetic) is a sterile, clear, colorless solution of oxytocin in Water for Injection prepared by synthesis.  Acetic acid may have been added for pH adjustment (pH 3.0-5.0).  The structural formula is:

 



What does Oxytocin look like?



What are the available doses of Oxytocin?

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What should I talk to my health care provider before I take Oxytocin?

Sorry No records found

How should I use Oxytocin?

Oxytocin injection (synthetic) is indicated for the initiation or improvement of uterine contractions, where this is desirable and considered suitable, in order to achieve early vaginal delivery for fetal or maternal reasons.  It is indicated for (1) induction of labor in patients with a medical indication for the initiation of labor, such as Rh problems, maternal diabetes, pre-eclampsia at or near term, when delivery is in the best interest of mother and fetus or when membranes are prematurely ruptured and delivery is indicated; (2) stimulation or reinforcement of labor, as in selected cases of uterine inertia; (3) adjunctive therapy in the management of incomplete or inevitable abortion.  In the first trimester, curettage is generally considered primary therapy.  In second trimester abortion, oxytocin infusion will often be successful in emptying the uterus.  Other means of therapy, however, may be required in such cases.

Dosage of oxytocin is determined by uterine response.  The following dosage information is based upon the various regimens and indications in general use.


What interacts with Oxytocin?


  • Oxytocin injection (synthetic) is contraindicated in any of the following conditions:




What are the warnings of Oxytocin?

Administration of promethazine HCl has been associated with reported cholestatic jaundice.


What are the precautions of Oxytocin?

General

All patients receiving intravenous oxytocin must be under continuous observation by trained personnel with a thorough knowledge of the drug and qualified to identify complications.  A physician qualified to manage any complications should be immediately available.

When properly administered, oxytocin should stimulate uterine contractions similar to those seen in normal labor.  Overstimulation of the uterus by improper administration can be hazardous to both mother and fetus.  Even with proper administration and adequate supervision, hypertonic contractions can occur in patients whose uteri are hypersensitive to oxytocin.

Except in unusual circumstances, oxytocin should not be administered in the following conditions: prematurity, borderline cephalopelvic disproportion, previous major surgery on the cervix or uterus including caesarean section, overdistention of the uterus, grand multiparity or invasive cervical carcinoma.  Because of the variability of the combinations of factors which may be present in the conditions above, the definition of ‘‘unusual circumstances’’ must be left to the judgement of the physician.  The decision can only be made by carefully weighing the potential benefits which oxytocin can provide in a given case against rare but definite potential for the drug to produce hypertonicity or tetanic spasm.

Maternal deaths due to hypertensive episodes, subarachnoid hemorrhage, rupture of the uterus and fetal deaths due to various causes have been reported associated with the use of parenteral oxytocic drugs for induction of labor and for augmentation in the first and second stages of labor.

Oxytocin has been shown to have an intrinsic antidiuretic effect, acting to increase water reabsorption from the glomerular filtrate.  Consideration should, therefore, be given to the possibility of water intoxication, particularly when oxytocin is administered continuously by infusion and the patient is receiving fluids by mouth.

Drug Interactions

Severe hypertension has been reported when oxytocin was given three to four hours following prophylactic administration of a vasoconstrictor in conjunction with caudal block anesthesia.  Cyclopropane anesthesia may modify oxytocin’s cardiovascular effects, so as to produce unexpected results such as hypotension.  Maternal sinus bradycardia with abnormal atrioventricular rhythms has also been noted when oxytocin was used concomitantly with cyclopropane anesthesia.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

There are no animal or human studies on the carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of this drug, nor is there any information on its effect on fertility.

Pregnancy Category C.

There are no known indications for use of oxytocin in the first and second trimester of pregnancy other than in relation to spontaneous or induced abortion.  Based on the wide experience with this drug and its chemical structure and pharmacological properties, it would not be expected to present a risk of fetal abnormalities when used as indicated.

Nonteratogenic Effects—See in the fetus or infant.

Labor and Delivery—See .

Nursing Mothers

It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk.  Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when oxytocin is administered to a nursing woman.


What are the side effects of Oxytocin?

The following adverse reactions have been reported in the mother:

Excessive dosage or hypersensitivity to the drug may result in uterine hypertonicity, spasm, tetanic contraction or rupture of the uterus.

The possibility of increased blood loss and afibrinogenemia should be kept in mind when administering the drug.

Severe water intoxication with convulsions and coma has occurred, and is associated with a slow oxytocin infusion over a 24-hour period.  Maternal death due to oxytocin-induced water intoxication has been reported.

The following adverse reactions have been reported in the fetus or infant:

Due to induced uterine mobility:

Due to use of oxytocin in the mother:


What should I look out for while using Oxytocin?

Oxytocin injection (synthetic) is contraindicated in any of the following conditions:

Oxytocin injection (synthetic) when given for induction or stimulation of labor, must be administered only by the intravenous route and with adequate medical supervision in a hospital.


What might happen if I take too much Oxytocin?

Overdosage with oxytocin injection (synthetic) depends essentially on uterine hyperactivity whether or not due to hypersensitivity to this agent.  Hyperstimulation with strong (hypertonic) or prolonged (tetanic) contractions, or a resting tone of 15 to 20 mm HO or more between contractions can lead to tumultuous labor, uterine rupture, cervical and vaginal lacerations, postpartum hemorrhage, uteroplacental hypoperfusion and variable deceleration of fetal heart, fetal hypoxia, hypercapnia or death.  Water intoxication with convulsions, which is caused by the inherent antidiuretic effect of oxytocin, is a serious complication that may occur if large doses (40 to 50 milliunits/minute) are infused for long periods.  Management consists of immediate discontinuation of oxytocin, and symptomatic and supportive therapy.


How should I store and handle Oxytocin?

Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15–30°C (59–86°F) . Avoid high humidity. Oxytocin Injection, USP (synthetic) is supplied as follows: Packaged in a plastic vial. Discard unused portion. Use only if solution is clear and seal intact. Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Do not permit to freeze.Oxytocin Injection, USP (synthetic) is supplied as follows: Packaged in a plastic vial. Discard unused portion. Use only if solution is clear and seal intact. Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Do not permit to freeze.Oxytocin Injection, USP (synthetic) is supplied as follows: Packaged in a plastic vial. Discard unused portion. Use only if solution is clear and seal intact. Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Do not permit to freeze.Oxytocin Injection, USP (synthetic) is supplied as follows: Packaged in a plastic vial. Discard unused portion. Use only if solution is clear and seal intact. Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Do not permit to freeze.Oxytocin Injection, USP (synthetic) is supplied as follows: Packaged in a plastic vial. Discard unused portion. Use only if solution is clear and seal intact. Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Do not permit to freeze.Oxytocin Injection, USP (synthetic) is supplied as follows: Packaged in a plastic vial. Discard unused portion. Use only if solution is clear and seal intact. Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Do not permit to freeze.


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Clinical Information

Chemical Structure

No Image found
Clinical Pharmacology

Oxytocin injection (synthetic) acts on the smooth muscle of the uterus to stimulate contractions; response depends on the uterine threshold of excitability.  It exerts a selective action on the smooth musculature of the uterus, particularly toward the end of pregnancy, during labor and immediately following delivery.  Oxytocin stimulates rhythmic contractions of the uterus, increases the frequency of existing contractions and raises the tone of the uterine musculature.  Synthetic oxytocin does not possess the cardiovascular effects, such as elevation of blood pressure, as exhibited by vasopressin found in posterior pituitary injection.

Non-Clinical Toxicology
Oxytocin injection (synthetic) is contraindicated in any of the following conditions:

Oxytocin injection (synthetic) when given for induction or stimulation of labor, must be administered only by the intravenous route and with adequate medical supervision in a hospital.

See Table 2 for clinically significant drug interactions with diclofenac.

All patients receiving intravenous oxytocin must be under continuous observation by trained personnel with a thorough knowledge of the drug and qualified to identify complications.  A physician qualified to manage any complications should be immediately available.

When properly administered, oxytocin should stimulate uterine contractions similar to those seen in normal labor.  Overstimulation of the uterus by improper administration can be hazardous to both mother and fetus.  Even with proper administration and adequate supervision, hypertonic contractions can occur in patients whose uteri are hypersensitive to oxytocin.

Except in unusual circumstances, oxytocin should not be administered in the following conditions: prematurity, borderline cephalopelvic disproportion, previous major surgery on the cervix or uterus including caesarean section, overdistention of the uterus, grand multiparity or invasive cervical carcinoma.  Because of the variability of the combinations of factors which may be present in the conditions above, the definition of ‘‘unusual circumstances’’ must be left to the judgement of the physician.  The decision can only be made by carefully weighing the potential benefits which oxytocin can provide in a given case against rare but definite potential for the drug to produce hypertonicity or tetanic spasm.

Maternal deaths due to hypertensive episodes, subarachnoid hemorrhage, rupture of the uterus and fetal deaths due to various causes have been reported associated with the use of parenteral oxytocic drugs for induction of labor and for augmentation in the first and second stages of labor.

Oxytocin has been shown to have an intrinsic antidiuretic effect, acting to increase water reabsorption from the glomerular filtrate.  Consideration should, therefore, be given to the possibility of water intoxication, particularly when oxytocin is administered continuously by infusion and the patient is receiving fluids by mouth.

The following adverse reactions have been reported in the mother:

Excessive dosage or hypersensitivity to the drug may result in uterine hypertonicity, spasm, tetanic contraction or rupture of the uterus.

The possibility of increased blood loss and afibrinogenemia should be kept in mind when administering the drug.

Severe water intoxication with convulsions and coma has occurred, and is associated with a slow oxytocin infusion over a 24-hour period.  Maternal death due to oxytocin-induced water intoxication has been reported.

The following adverse reactions have been reported in the fetus or infant:

Due to induced uterine mobility:

Due to use of oxytocin in the mother:

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Reference

This information is obtained from the National Institute of Health's Standard Packaging Label drug database.
"https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/"

While we update our database periodically, we cannot guarantee it is always updated to the latest version.

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Professional

Clonazepam Description Each single-scored tablet, for oral administration, contains 0.5 mg, 1 mg, or 2 mg Clonazepam, USP, a benzodiazepine. Each tablet also contains corn starch, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and povidone. Clonazepam tablets USP 0.5 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake. Clonazepam tablets USP 1 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake, as well as FD&C Blue No. 1 Aluminum Lake. Chemically, Clonazepam, USP is 5-(o-chlorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-7-nitro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one. It is a light yellow crystalline powder. It has the following structural formula: C15H10ClN3O3 M.W. 315.72
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Tips

Tips

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Interactions

Interactions

A total of 440 drugs (1549 brand and generic names) are known to interact with Imbruvica (ibrutinib). 228 major drug interactions (854 brand and generic names) 210 moderate drug interactions (691 brand and generic names) 2 minor drug interactions (4 brand and generic names) Show all medications in the database that may interact with Imbruvica (ibrutinib).