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pentetate zinc trisodium

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Overview

What is pentetate zinc trisodium?

Pentetate zinc trisodium injection contains the sodium salt of zinc diethylenetriaminepentaacetate. Pentetate zinc trisodium is also known as trisodium zinc diethylenetriaminepentaacetate and is commonly referred to as Zn-DTPA. It has a molecular formula of NaZnCHNO and a molecular weight of 522.7 Daltons. It is represented by the following structural formula:

Zn-DTPA is supplied as a clear, colorless, hyperosmolar (1260 mOsmol/kg) solution in a colorless ampoule containing 5 mL. The ampoule contents are sterile, non-pyrogenic and suitable for intravenous administration. Each mL of solution contains the equivalent of 200 mg pentetate zinc trisodium (obtained from 150.51 mg pentetic acid, 31.14 mg zinc oxide and NaOH) and water for injection, USP. The pH of the solution is adjusted with NaOH and is between 6.5 – 7.5.



What does pentetate zinc trisodium look like?



What are the available doses of pentetate zinc trisodium?

Sorry No records found.

What should I talk to my health care provider before I take pentetate zinc trisodium?

Sorry No records found

How should I use pentetate zinc trisodium?

Zn-DTPA is indicated for treatment of individuals with known or suspected internal contamination with plutonium, americium, or curium to increase the rates of elimination.

Chelation treatment is most effective if administered within the first 24 hours after internal contamination and should be started as soon as possible after suspected or known internal contamination. However, even when treatment cannot be started right away, individuals should be given chelation treatment as soon as it becomes available. Chelation treatment is still effective even after time has elapsed following internal contamination, however the chelating effects of Zn-DTPA are greatest when the radiocontaminants are still circulating or are in interstitial fluids. The effectiveness of chelation decreases with time following internal contamination as the radiocontaminants become sequestered in liver and bone.

Individuals should drink plenty of fluids and void frequently to promote dilution of the radioactive chelate in the urine and minimize radiation exposure directly to the bladder.

If internal contamination with radiocontaminants other than plutonium, americium, or curium, or unknown radiocontaminants is suspected, additional therapies may be needed (e.g., Prussian blue, potassium iodide).


What interacts with pentetate zinc trisodium?

None known.



What are the warnings of pentetate zinc trisodium?

Codeine is habit-forming and potentially abusable. Consequently, the extended use of this product is not recommended.


What are the precautions of pentetate zinc trisodium?

General

Treatment over several months with Zn-DTPA could lead to depletion of body stores of endogenous metals (e.g., magnesium, manganese). These elements should be monitored routinely and, if appropriate, mineral or vitamin plus mineral supplements should be provided.

Information for Patients

Radioactive metals are known to be excreted in the urine, feces, and breast milk. In individuals with recent internal contamination with plutonium, americium, or curium, Zn-DTPA treatment increases excretion of radioactivity in the urine. Appropriate safety measures should be taken to minimize contamination of others. When possible, a toilet should be used instead of a urinal, and it should be flushed several times after each use. Spilled urine or feces should be cleaned up completely and patients should wash their hands thoroughly. If blood or urine comes in contact with clothing or linens, they should be washed separately. Patients should drink plenty of fluids and void frequently. If patients are coughing, any expectorant should be disposed of carefully. Swallowing the expectorant should be avoided if possible. Parents and child-care givers should take extra precaution in handling the urine, feces, and expectorants of children to avoid any additional exposure to either the caregiver or to the child. Nursing mothers should take extra precaution in disposing of breast milk. (See )

Laboratory Tests

Serum electrolytes and essential metals should be closely monitored during Zn-DTPA treatment. Mineral or vitamin plus mineral supplements may be given as appropriate. (See )

Drug-Drug Interactions

Adequate and well-controlled drug-drug interaction studies in humans were not identified in the literature. When an individual is contaminated with multiple radiocontaminants, or when the radiocontaminants are unknown, additional therapies may be needed (e.g., Prussian blue, potassium iodide).

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Studies with Zn-DTPA to evaluate carcinogenesis, mutagenesis and impairment of fertility have not been performed. Data for Zn-DTPA effects on spermatogenesis are not available.

Teratogenic Effects

There are no human pregnancy outcome data from which to assess the risk of Zn-DTPA exposure on fetal development. Reproduction studies have been performed in pregnant mice at doses up to 11.5 mmol/kg (31 times the recommended daily dose of 1 gram based on body surface area [BSA] adjusted dose) and have revealed no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus. There was a slight reduction in the average birth weight.

Treatment of pregnant women should begin and continue with Zn-DTPA. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed. The risk of toxicity from untreated internal radioactive contamination should be weighed against the risk of Zn-DTPA treatment.

Nursing Mothers

Studies to determine if Zn-DTPA is excreted in breast milk have not been conducted.

Radiocontaminants are known to be excreted in breast milk. Women with known or suspected internal contamination with radiocontaminants should not breast feed, whether or not they are receiving chelation therapy. Precautions should be taken when discarding breast milk. (See )

Pediatric Use

The safety and effectiveness of Zn-DTPA was established in the adult population and efficacy was extrapolated to the pediatric population for the intravenous route based on the comparability of pathophysiologic mechanisms. The dose is based on body size adjustment for an intravenous drug that is renally cleared. The safety and effectiveness of the nebulized route of administration has not been established in the pediatric population.


What are the side effects of pentetate zinc trisodium?

In the U.S. Registry, a total of 646 individuals received at least one dose of either Ca-DTPA or Zn-DTPA. Of these, 62 received Zn-DTPA by one or more routes of administration. Forty-eight individuals were dosed by intravenous administration, 18 by inhalation and 8 by other or unknown routes of administration.

Of the individuals that received Zn-DTPA, 23/62 (37%) received one dose and 8 (13%) received two doses. The remaining 31 individuals received three or more doses. The largest number of Zn-DTPA doses to a single individual was 574 doses delivered over 3.5 years.

Overall, the presence or absence of adverse events was recorded in 310/646 individuals. Of these 19 (6.1%) individuals reported at least one adverse event. The total number of recorded adverse events was 20. Of the 20 adverse events, 1 individual treated with Zn-DTPA reported headache, lightheadedness, and pelvic pain.

Two individuals experienced cough and/or wheezing with nebulized Ca-DTPA therapy however there was no report of such events with nebulized Zn-DTPA.


What should I look out for while using pentetate zinc trisodium?

None known.

Nebulized chelation therapy may be associated with exacerbation of asthma. Caution should be exercised when administering Zn-DTPA by the inhalation route. (See )


What might happen if I take too much pentetate zinc trisodium?

Overdose with Zn-DTPA has not been reported.


How should I store and handle pentetate zinc trisodium?

Store unreconstituted vials at 25° C (77° F); excursions permitted to 15°-30° C (59°-86° F) (See USP Controlled Room Temperature).Zn-DTPA is supplied as a sterile solution in 5 mL single-use clear glass ampoules at a concentration of 200 mg/mL for intravenous use. Each ampoule contains the equivalent of 1000 mg of pentetate zinc trisodium.NDC 52919-002-03,Zn-DTPA is supplied as a sterile solution in 5 mL single-use clear glass ampoules at a concentration of 200 mg/mL for intravenous use. Each ampoule contains the equivalent of 1000 mg of pentetate zinc trisodium.NDC 52919-002-03,


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Clinical Information

Chemical Structure

No Image found
Clinical Pharmacology

Zn-DTPA forms stable chelates with metal ions by exchanging zinc for a metal of greater binding capacity. The radioactive chelates are then excreted by glomerular filtration into the urine. In animal studies, Zn-DTPA forms less stable chelates with uranium and neptunium resulting in deposition of these elements in tissues including the bone. Zn-DTPA treatments are not expected to be effective for uranium and neptunium. Radioactive iodine is not bound by DTPA.

Non-Clinical Toxicology
None known.

Nebulized chelation therapy may be associated with exacerbation of asthma. Caution should be exercised when administering Zn-DTPA by the inhalation route. (See )

Adequate and well-controlled drug-drug interaction studies in humans were not identified in the literature. When an individual is contaminated with multiple radiocontaminants, or when the radiocontaminants are unknown, additional therapies may be needed (e.g., Prussian blue, potassium iodide).

Treatment over several months with Zn-DTPA could lead to depletion of body stores of endogenous metals (e.g., magnesium, manganese). These elements should be monitored routinely and, if appropriate, mineral or vitamin plus mineral supplements should be provided.

In the U.S. Registry, a total of 646 individuals received at least one dose of either Ca-DTPA or Zn-DTPA. Of these, 62 received Zn-DTPA by one or more routes of administration. Forty-eight individuals were dosed by intravenous administration, 18 by inhalation and 8 by other or unknown routes of administration.

Of the individuals that received Zn-DTPA, 23/62 (37%) received one dose and 8 (13%) received two doses. The remaining 31 individuals received three or more doses. The largest number of Zn-DTPA doses to a single individual was 574 doses delivered over 3.5 years.

Overall, the presence or absence of adverse events was recorded in 310/646 individuals. Of these 19 (6.1%) individuals reported at least one adverse event. The total number of recorded adverse events was 20. Of the 20 adverse events, 1 individual treated with Zn-DTPA reported headache, lightheadedness, and pelvic pain.

Two individuals experienced cough and/or wheezing with nebulized Ca-DTPA therapy however there was no report of such events with nebulized Zn-DTPA.

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Reference

This information is obtained from the National Institute of Health's Standard Packaging Label drug database.
"https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/"

While we update our database periodically, we cannot guarantee it is always updated to the latest version.

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Interactions

Interactions

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