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Pioglitazone Hydrochloride

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Overview

What is Pioglitazone Hydrochloride?

Pioglitazone tablets USP (pioglitazone hydrochloride) are an oral antidiabetic medication.

Pioglitazone [(±)-5-[[4-[2-(5-ethyl-2-pyridinyl) ethoxy] phenyl] methyl]-2,4-] thiazolidinedione monohydrochloride contains one asymmetric carbon, and the compound is synthesized and used as the racemic mixture. The two enantiomers of pioglitazone interconvert . No differences were found in the pharmacologic activity between the two enantiomers. The structural formula is as shown:

      

Pioglitazone hydrochloride is an odorless white crystalline powder that has a molecular formula of CHNOS•HCl and a molecular weight of 392.90 daltons. It is soluble in dimethylformamide, slightly soluble in anhydrous ethanol, very slightly soluble in acetone and acetonitrile, practically insoluble in water, and insoluble in ether.

Pioglitazone tablets USP are available as a tablet for oral administration containing 15 mg, 30 mg, or 45 mg of pioglitazone (as the base) formulated with the following excipients: lactose monohydrate, carboxymethylcellulose calcium, hydroxypropylcellulose, and magnesium stearate.



What does Pioglitazone Hydrochloride look like?



What are the available doses of Pioglitazone Hydrochloride?

Tablets: 15 mg, 30 mg, and 45 mg ()

What should I talk to my health care provider before I take Pioglitazone Hydrochloride?

How should I use Pioglitazone Hydrochloride?

Pioglitazone tablets are indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus in multiple clinical settings .

Pioglitazone tablets USP should be taken once daily and can be taken without regard to meals.

The recommended starting dose for patients without congestive heart failure is 15 mg or 30 mg once daily.

The recommended starting dose for patients with congestive heart failure (NYHA Class I or II) is 15 mg once daily.

The dose can be titrated in increments of 15 mg up to a maximum of 45 mg once daily based on glycemic response as determined by HbA1c.

After initiation of pioglitazone tablets USP or with dose increase, monitor patients carefully for adverse reactions related to fluid retention such as weight gain, edema, and signs and symptoms of congestive heart failure [see and ()].

Liver tests (serum alanine and aspartate aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase, and total bilirubin) should be obtained prior to initiating pioglitazone tablets USP. Routine periodic monitoring of liver tests during treatment with pioglitazone tablets USP is not recommended in patients without liver disease. Patients who have liver test abnormalities prior to initiation of pioglitazone tablets USP or who are found to have abnormal liver tests while taking pioglitazone tablets USP should be managed as described under Warnings and Precautions [see () and ()].

Pioglitazone tablets USP should be taken once daily and can be taken without regard to meals.

The recommended starting dose for patients without congestive heart failure is 15 mg or 30 mg once daily.

The recommended starting dose for patients with congestive heart failure (NYHA Class I or II) is 15 mg once daily.


What interacts with Pioglitazone Hydrochloride?

Sorry No Records found


What are the warnings of Pioglitazone Hydrochloride?

Sorry No Records found


What are the precautions of Pioglitazone Hydrochloride?

Sorry No Records found


What are the side effects of Pioglitazone Hydrochloride?

Sorry No records found


What should I look out for while using Pioglitazone Hydrochloride?

[see ]



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What might happen if I take too much Pioglitazone Hydrochloride?

During controlled clinical trials, one case of overdose with pioglitazone tablets was reported. A male patient took 120 mg per day for four days, then 180 mg per day for seven days. The patient denied any clinical symptoms during this period.

In the event of overdosage, appropriate supportive treatment should be initiated according to the patient’s clinical signs and symptoms.


How should I store and handle Pioglitazone Hydrochloride?

Sorry No Records found


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Clinical Information

Chemical Structure

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Clinical Pharmacology

Pioglitazone tablets are a thiazolidinedione that depends on the presence of insulin for its mechanism of action. Pioglitazone tablets decrease insulin resistance in the periphery and in the liver resulting in increased insulin-dependent glucose disposal and decreased hepatic glucose output. Pioglitazone is not an insulin secretagogue. Pioglitazone is an agonist for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ). PPAR receptors are found in tissues important for insulin action such as adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and liver. Activation of PPARγ nuclear receptors modulates the transcription of a number of insulin responsive genes involved in the control of glucose and lipid metabolism.

In animal models of diabetes, pioglitazone reduces the hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hypertriglyceridemia characteristic of insulin-resistant states such as type 2 diabetes. The metabolic changes produced by pioglitazone result in increased responsiveness of insulin-dependent tissues and are observed in numerous animal models of insulin resistance.

Because pioglitazone enhances the effects of circulating insulin (by decreasing insulin resistance), it does not lower blood glucose in animal models that lack endogenous insulin.

Non-Clinical Toxicology
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Ketorolac is highly bound to human plasma protein (mean 99.2%). There is no evidence in animal or human studies that ketorolac tromethamine induces or inhibits hepatic enzymes capable of metabolizing itself or other drugs.





The in vitro binding of to plasma proteins is only slightly reduced by ketorolac tromethamine (99.5% control vs 99.3%) when ketorolac plasma concentrations reach 5 to 10 mcg/mL. Ketorolac does not alter protein binding. In vitro studies indicate that, at therapeutic concentrations of salicylate (300 mcg/mL), the binding of ketorolac was reduced from approximately 99.2% to 97.5%, representing a potential twofold increase in unbound ketorolac plasma levels. Therapeutic concentrations of and did not alter ketorolac tromethamine protein binding.

In a study involving 12 adult volunteers, oral ketorolac tromethamine was co-administered with a single dose of 25 mg , causing no significant changes in pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics of warfarin. In another study, ketorolac tromethamine dosed intravenous or intramuscular was given with two doses of 5000 U of to 11 healthy volunteers, resulting in a mean template bleeding time of 6 minutes (3.2 to 11.4 min) compared to a mean of 6.0 minutes (3.4 to 7.5 min) for heparin alone and 5.1 minutes (3.5 to 8.5 min) for placebo. Although these results do not indicate a significant interaction between ketorolac tromethamine and warfarin or heparin, the administration of ketorolac tromethamine to patients taking anticoagulants should be done extremely cautiously and patients should be closely monitored (see and ).

The effects of warfarin and NSAIDs, in general, on GI bleeding are synergistic, such that the users of both drugs together have a risk of serious GI bleeding higher than the users of either drug alone.





When ketorolac tromethamine is administered with aspirin, its protein binding is reduced, although the clearance of free ketorolac tromethamine is not altered. The clinical significance of this interaction is not known; however, as with other NSAIDs, concomitant administration of ketorolac tromethamine and aspirin is not generally recommended because of the potential of increased adverse effects.





Clinical studies, as well as postmarketing observations, have shown that ketorolac tromethamine can reduce the natriuretic effect of furosemide and thiazides in some patients. This response has been attributed to inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis. During concomitant therapy with NSAIDs, the patient should be observed closely for signs of renal failure (see ), as well as to assure diuretic efficacy.





Concomitant administration of oral ketorolac tromethamine and resulted in decreased clearance and volume of distribution of ketorolac and significant increases in ketorolac plasma levels (total AUC increased approximately threefold from 5.4 to 17.8 mcg/h/mL) and terminal half-life increased approximately twofold from 6.6 to 15.1 hours. Therefore, concomitant use of ketorolac tromethamine and probenecid is contraindicated.





NSAIDs have produced an elevation of plasma lithium levels and a reduction in renal lithium clearance. The mean minimum lithium concentration increased 15% and the renal clearance was decreased by approximately 20%. These effects have been attributed to inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis by the NSAID. Thus, when NSAIDs and lithium are administered concurrently, subjects should be observed carefully for signs of lithium toxicity.





NSAIDs have been reported to competitively inhibit methotrexate accumulation in rabbit kidney slices. This may indicate that they could enhance the toxicity of methotrexate. Caution should be used when NSAIDs are administered concomitantly with methotrexate.





Concomitant use of may increase the risk of renal impairment, particularly in volume-depleted patients.

Reports suggest that NSAIDs may diminish the antihypertensive effect of ACE inhibitors and/or angiotensin II receptor antagonists. This interaction should be given consideration in patients taking NSAIDs concomitantly with ACE inhibitors and/or angiotensin II receptor antagonists.





Sporadic cases of seizures have been reported during concomitant use of ketorolac tromethamine and antiepileptic drugs (phenytoin, carbamazepine).





Hallucinations have been reported when ketorolac tromethamine was used in patients taking (fluoxetine, thiothixene, alprazolam).





When ketorolac tromethamine is administered concurrently with , there is an increased tendency to bleeding.





In postmarketing experience there have been reports of a possible interaction between ketorolac tromethamine intravenous/intramuscular and that resulted in apnea. The concurrent use of ketorolac tromethamine with muscle relaxants has not been formally studied.





There is an increased risk of gastrointestinal bleeding when (SSRIs) are combined with NSAIDs. Caution should be used when NSAIDs are administered concomitantly with SSRIs.

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Pioglitazone tablets, like other thiazolidinediones, can cause dose-related fluid retention when used alone or in combination with other antidiabetic medications and is most common when pioglitazone tablets are used in combination with insulin. Fluid retention may lead to or exacerbate congestive heart failure. Patients should be observed for signs and symptoms of congestive heart failure. If congestive heart failure develops, it should be managed according to current standards of care and discontinuation or dose reduction of pioglitazone tablets must be considered , .

The following serious adverse reactions are discussed elsewhere in the labeling:

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Reference

This information is obtained from the National Institute of Health's Standard Packaging Label drug database.
"https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/"

While we update our database periodically, we cannot guarantee it is always updated to the latest version.

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Professional

Clonazepam Description Each single-scored tablet, for oral administration, contains 0.5 mg, 1 mg, or 2 mg Clonazepam, USP, a benzodiazepine. Each tablet also contains corn starch, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and povidone. Clonazepam tablets USP 0.5 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake. Clonazepam tablets USP 1 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake, as well as FD&C Blue No. 1 Aluminum Lake. Chemically, Clonazepam, USP is 5-(o-chlorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-7-nitro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one. It is a light yellow crystalline powder. It has the following structural formula: C15H10ClN3O3 M.W. 315.72
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Tips

Tips

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Interactions

Interactions

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