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Polymyxin B

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Overview

What is Polymyxin B?

Polymyxin B for Injection, USP is one of a group of basic polypeptide antibiotics derived from . Polymyxin B sulfate is the sulfate salt of Polymyxins B and B, which are produced by the growth of (Prazmowski) Migula (Fam. Bacillacea). It has a potency of not less than 6,000 polymyxin B units per mg, calculated on the anhydrous basis. The structural formulae are:

Each vial contains 500,000 polymyxin B units for parenteral or ophthalmic administration.

Polymyxin B for Injection, USP is in powder form suitable for preparation of sterile solutions for intramuscular, intravenous drip, intrathecal, or ophthalmic use.

In the medical literature, dosages have frequently been given in terms of equivalent weights of pure polymyxin B base. Each milligram of pure polymyxin B base is equivalent to 10,000 units of polymyxin B and each microgram of pure polymyxin B base is equivalent to 10 units of polymyxin B.

Aqueous solutions of polymyxin B sulfate may be stored up to 12 months without significant loss of potency if kept under refrigeration. In the interest of safety, solutions for parenteral use should be stored under refrigeration and any unused portion should be discarded after 72 hours. Polymyxin B sulfate should not be stored in alkaline solutions since they are less stable.



What does Polymyxin B look like?



What are the available doses of Polymyxin B?

Sorry No records found.

What should I talk to my health care provider before I take Polymyxin B?

Sorry No records found

How should I use Polymyxin B?


What interacts with Polymyxin B?

This drug is contraindicated in persons with a prior history of hypersensitivity reactions to polymyxins.



What are the warnings of Polymyxin B?

Advise patients (1) to avoid operating automobiles and machinery or engaging in other tasks requiring alertness until the patient’s response to therapy with metoprolol has been determined; (2) to contact the physician if any difficulty in breathing occurs; (3) to inform the physician or dentist before any type of surgery that he or she is taking metoprolol.

If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of , and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.


What are the precautions of Polymyxin B?

General

Prescribing polymyxin B in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.

See box.

Baseline renal function should be done prior to therapy, with frequent monitoring of renal function and blood levels of the drug during parenteral therapy.

Avoid concurrent use of a curariform muscle relaxant and other neurotoxic drugs (ether, tubocurarine, succinylcholine, gallamine, decamethonium and sodium citrate) which may precipitate respiratory depression. If signs of respiratory paralysis appear, respiration should be assisted as required, and the drug discontinued.

As with other antibiotics, use of this drug may result in overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms, including fungi.

If superinfection occurs, appropriate therapy should be instituted.

Information for Patients

Patients should be counseled that antibacterial drugs including polymyxin B should only be used to treat bacterial infections. They do not treat viral infections (e.g., the common cold). When polymyxin B is prescribed to treat a bacterial infection, patients should be told that although it is common to feel better early in the course of therapy, the medication should be taken exactly as directed. Skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may (1) decrease the effectiveness of the immediate treatment and (2) increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable by polymyxin B or other antibacterial drugs in the future.

Diarrhea is a common problem caused by antibiotics which usually ends when the antibiotic is discontinued. Sometimes after starting treatment with antibiotics, patients can develop watery and bloody stools (with or without stomach cramps and fever) even as late as two or more months after having taken the last dose of the antibiotic. If this occurs, patients should contact their physician as soon as possible.


What are the side effects of Polymyxin B?

See box.

Nephrotoxic reactions:

Neurotoxic reactions:

Other reactions occasionally reported:

To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Breckenridge Pharmaceutical, Inc. at 1-800-367-3395 or go to or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or .


What should I look out for while using Polymyxin B?

This drug is contraindicated in persons with a prior history of hypersensitivity reactions to polymyxins.

Clostridium difficile

C. difficile

C. difficile

C. difficile

If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of , and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.


What might happen if I take too much Polymyxin B?

Sorry No Records found


How should I store and handle Polymyxin B?

StorageStore Pantoprazole Sodium Delayed-Release Tablets, USP at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F); excursions permitted to 15° to 30°C (59° to 86°F) []. StorageStore Pantoprazole Sodium Delayed-Release Tablets, USP at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F); excursions permitted to 15° to 30°C (59° to 86°F) []. Polymyxin B for Injection, USP is supplied as follows:


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Clinical Information

Chemical Structure

No Image found
Clinical Pharmacology

Polymyxin B sulfate has a bactericidal action against almost all gram-negative bacilli except the group. Polymyxins increase the permeability of the bacterial cell membrane leading to death of the cell. All gram-positive bacteria, fungi, and gram-negative cocci are resistant to polymyxin B. Appropriate methods should be used when performing susceptibility testing of polymyxin B. The following susceptibility test criteria should only be used for interpreting the results of polymyxin B susceptibility testing against when the indicated quality control parameters are met during testing.

Polymyxin B sulfate is not absorbed from the normal alimentary tract. Since the drug loses 50 percent of its activity in the presence of serum, active blood levels are low. Repeated injections may give a cumulative effect. Levels tend to be higher in infants and children. The drug is excreted slowly by the kidneys. Tissue diffusion is poor and the drug does not pass the blood brain barrier into the cerebrospinal fluid. In therapeutic dosage, polymyxin B sulfate causes some nephrotoxicity with tubule damage to a slight degree.

Non-Clinical Toxicology
This drug is contraindicated in persons with a prior history of hypersensitivity reactions to polymyxins.

Clostridium difficile

C. difficile

C. difficile

C. difficile

If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of , and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.

Ranitidine has been reported to affect the bioavailability of other drugs through several different mechanisms such as competition for renal tubular secretion, alteration of gastric pH, and inhibition of cytochrome P450 enzymes.





































Prescribing polymyxin B in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.

See box.

Baseline renal function should be done prior to therapy, with frequent monitoring of renal function and blood levels of the drug during parenteral therapy.

Avoid concurrent use of a curariform muscle relaxant and other neurotoxic drugs (ether, tubocurarine, succinylcholine, gallamine, decamethonium and sodium citrate) which may precipitate respiratory depression. If signs of respiratory paralysis appear, respiration should be assisted as required, and the drug discontinued.

As with other antibiotics, use of this drug may result in overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms, including fungi.

If superinfection occurs, appropriate therapy should be instituted.

See box.

Nephrotoxic reactions:

Neurotoxic reactions:

Other reactions occasionally reported:

To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Breckenridge Pharmaceutical, Inc. at 1-800-367-3395 or go to or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or .

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Reference

This information is obtained from the National Institute of Health's Standard Packaging Label drug database.
"https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/"

While we update our database periodically, we cannot guarantee it is always updated to the latest version.

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Professional

Clonazepam Description Each single-scored tablet, for oral administration, contains 0.5 mg, 1 mg, or 2 mg Clonazepam, USP, a benzodiazepine. Each tablet also contains corn starch, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and povidone. Clonazepam tablets USP 0.5 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake. Clonazepam tablets USP 1 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake, as well as FD&C Blue No. 1 Aluminum Lake. Chemically, Clonazepam, USP is 5-(o-chlorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-7-nitro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one. It is a light yellow crystalline powder. It has the following structural formula: C15H10ClN3O3 M.W. 315.72
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Tips

Tips

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Interactions

Interactions

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