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Potassium Chloride in Dextrose and Sodium Chloride

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Overview

What is Potassium Chloride in Dextrose and Sodium Chloride?

(See chart below for quantitative information.)

Potassium Chloride in Dextrose and Sodium Chloride Injections USP are sterile, nonpyrogenic and contain no bacteriostatic or antimicrobial agents. These products are intended for intravenous administration.

The formulas of the active ingredients are:

Not made with natural rubber latex, PVC or DEHP.

The plastic container is made from a multilayered film specifically developed for parenteral drugs. It contains no plasticizers and exhibits virtually no leachables. The solution contact layer is a rubberized copolymer of ethylene and propylene. The container is nontoxic and biologically inert. The container-solution unit is a closed system and is not dependent upon entry of external air during administration. The container is overwrapped to provide protection from the physical environment and to provide an additional moisture barrier when necessary.

Addition of medication should be accomplished using complete aseptic technique.

The closure system has two ports; the one for the administration set has a tamper evident plastic protector and the other is a medication addition site. Refer to the of the container.



What does Potassium Chloride in Dextrose and Sodium Chloride look like?



What are the available doses of Potassium Chloride in Dextrose and Sodium Chloride?

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What should I talk to my health care provider before I take Potassium Chloride in Dextrose and Sodium Chloride?

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How should I use Potassium Chloride in Dextrose and Sodium Chloride?

These intravenous solutions are indicated for use in adults and pediatric patients as sources of electrolytes, calories and water for hydration.

These solutions are for intravenous use only.

Dosage is to be directed by a physician and is dependent upon age, weight, clinical condition of the patient and laboratory determinations. Frequent laboratory determinations and clinical evaluation are essential to monitor changes in blood glucose and electrolyte concentrations, and fluid and electrolyte balance during prolonged parenteral therapy.

When a hypertonic solution is to be administered peripherally, it should be slowly infused through a small bore needle, placed well within the lumen of a large vein to minimize venous irritation. Carefully avoid infiltration.

Usually, up to 40 mEq of potassium per liter daily is sufficient to replace normal loss in adults. Typical infusion rates should not exceed 10 mEq per hour or 120 mEq per day. Pediatric patients may require 2 to 3 mEq per kg of body weight daily. See and for pediatric use.

Fluid administration should be based on calculated maintenance or replacement fluid requirements for each patient.

Dextrose may be administered to normal individuals at a rate of 0.5 g/kg/hour without producing glycosuria. At the maximum infusion rate of 0.8 g/kg/hour, approximately 95% of the dextrose is retained.

Some additives may be incompatible. Consult with pharmacist. When introducing additives, use aseptic techniques. Mix thoroughly. Do not store.

Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit.


What interacts with Potassium Chloride in Dextrose and Sodium Chloride?

These solutions are contraindicated where the administration of sodium, potassium or chloride could be clinically detrimental.


Solutions containing dextrose may be contraindicated in patients with hypersensitivity to corn products.



What are the warnings of Potassium Chloride in Dextrose and Sodium Chloride?

Elevated levels of ceftazidime in patients with renal insufficiency can lead to seizures, nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE), encephalopathy, coma, asterixis, neuromuscular excitability, and myoclonia (see ).

The administration of intravenous solutions can cause fluid and/or solute overload resulting in dilution of serum electrolyte concentrations, overhydration, congested states or pulmonary edema. The risk of dilutional states is inversely proportional to the electrolyte concentration. The risk of solute overload causing congested states with peripheral and pulmonary edema is directly proportional to the electrolyte concentration.

Solutions containing sodium ions should be used with great care, if at all, in patients with congestive heart failure, severe renal insufficiency, and in clinical states in which there is sodium retention with edema.

In patients with diminished renal function, administration of solutions containing sodium or potassium ions may result in sodium or potassium retention.

Solutions containing potassium ions should be used with great care, if at all, in patients with hyperkalemia, severe renal failure, and in conditions in which potassium retention is present.


What are the precautions of Potassium Chloride in Dextrose and Sodium Chloride?

General

These solutions should be used with care in patients with hypervolemia, renal insufficiency, urinary tract obstruction, or impending or frank cardiac decompensation.

Extraordinary electrolyte losses such as may occur during protracted nasogastric suction, vomiting, diarrhea or gastrointestinal fistula drainage may necessitate additional electrolyte supplementation.

Additional essential electrolytes, minerals and vitamins should be supplied as needed.

Sodium-containing solutions should be administered with caution to patients receiving corticosteroids or corticotropin, or to other salt-retaining patients.

Care should be exercised in administering solutions containing sodium or potassium to patients with renal or cardiovascular insufficiency, with or without congestive heart failure, particularly if they are postoperative or elderly.

Potassium therapy should be guided primarily by serial electrocardiograms, especially in patients receiving digitalis. Serum potassium levels are not necessarily indicative of tissue potassium levels. Solutions containing potassium should be used with caution in the presence of cardiac disease, particularly when accompanied by renal disease.

Solutions containing dextrose should be used with caution in patients with overt or known subclinical diabetes mellitus, or carbohydrate intolerance for any reason.

To minimize the risk of possible incompatibilities arising from mixing any of these solutions with other additives that may be prescribed, the final infusate should be inspected for cloudiness or precipitation immediately after mixing, prior to administration, and periodically during administration.

Do not use plastic containers in series connection.

If administration is controlled by a pumping device, care must be taken to discontinue pumping action before the container runs dry or air embolism may result. If administration is not controlled by a pumping device, refrain from applying excessive pressure (>300mmHg) causing distortion to the container such as wringing or twisting. Such handling could result in breakage of the container.

These solutions are intended for intravenous administration using sterile equipment. It is recommended that intravenous administration apparatus be replaced at least once every 24 hours. Use only if solution is clear and container and seals are intact.

Laboratory Tests

Clinical evaluation and periodic laboratory determinations are necessary to monitor changes in fluid balance, electrolyte concentrations, and acid-base balance during prolonged parenteral therapy or whenever the condition of the patient warrants such evaluation. Significant deviations from normal concentrations may require tailoring of the electrolyte pattern, in these or alternative solutions.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Studies with Potassium Chloride in Dextrose and Sodium Chloride Injections USP have not been performed to evaluate carcinogenic potential, mutagenic potential, or effects on fertility.

Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category C. Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with Potassium Chloride in Dextrose and Sodium Chloride Injections USP. It is also not known whether Potassium Chloride in Dextrose and Sodium Chloride Injections USP can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman or can affect reproduction capacity. Potassium Chloride in Dextrose and Sodium Chloride Injections USP should be given to a pregnant woman only if clearly needed.

Labor and Delivery

The effects of Potassium Chloride in Dextrose and Sodium Chloride Injections USP on the duration of labor or delivery, on the possibility that forceps delivery or other intervention or resuscitation of the newborn will be necessary, and on the later growth, development, and functional maturation of the child are unknown.

As reported in the literature, potassium containing solutions have been administered during labor and delivery. Caution should be exercised, and the fluid balance, glucose and electrolyte concentrations, and acid-base balance, of both mother and fetus should be evaluated periodically or whenever warranted by the condition of the patient or fetus.

Nursing Mothers

It is not known whether these drugs are excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when Potassium Chloride in Dextrose and Sodium Chloride Injections USP are administered to a nursing woman.

Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness of Potassium Chloride in Dextrose and Sodium Chloride Injections USP in pediatric patients have not been established by adequate and well-controlled studies. However, as referenced in the medical literature, potassium chloride injection has been used to treat pediatric patients with potassium deficiency when oral replacement therapy is not feasible.

For patients receiving potassium supplement at greater than maintenance rates, frequent monitoring of serum potassium levels and serial EKGs are recommended.

Dextrose is safe and effective for the stated indications in pediatric patients (see ). As reported in the literature, the dosage selection and constant infusion rate of intravenous dextrose must be selected with caution in pediatric patients, particularly neonates and low birth weight infants, because of the increased risk of hyperglycemia/hypoglycemia. Frequent monitoring of serum glucose concentrations is required when dextrose is prescribed to pediatric patients, particularly neonates and low birth weight infants.

In neonates or in very small infants even small volumes of fluid may affect fluid and electrolyte balance. Care must be exercised in treatment of neonates, especially pre-term neonates, whose renal function may be immature and whose ability to excrete fluid and solute loads may be limited. Fluid intake, urine output, and serum electrolytes should be monitored closely.

See and .

Geriatric Use

Clinical studies of Potassium Chloride in Dextrose and Sodium Chloride Injections USP did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between elderly and younger patients.

In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.

These drugs are known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to these drugs may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function.

See .


What are the side effects of Potassium Chloride in Dextrose and Sodium Chloride?

Reactions which may occur because of the solution or the technique of administration include febrile response, infection at the site of injection, venous thrombosis or phlebitis extending from the site of injection, extravasation and hypervolemia.

Too rapid infusion of hypertonic solutions may cause local pain and venous irritation. Rate of administration should be adjusted according to tolerance. Use of the largest peripheral vein and a small bore needle is recommended. (See .)

Symptoms may result from an excess or deficit of one or more of the ions present in the solution; therefore, frequent monitoring of electrolyte levels is essential.

Hypernatremia may be associated with edema and exacerbation of congestive heart failure due to the retention of water, resulting in an expanded extracellular fluid volume.

Reactions reported with the use of potassium-containing solutions include nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and diarrhea. The signs and symptoms of potassium intoxication include paresthesias of the extremities, areflexia, muscular or respiratory paralysis, mental confusion, weakness, hypotension, cardiac arrhythmias, heart block, electrocardiographic abnormalities and cardiac arrest.

Potassium deficits result in disruption of neuromuscular function, and intestinal ileus and dilatation.

If infused in large amounts, chloride ions may cause a loss of bicarbonate ions, resulting in an acidifying effect.

The physician should also be alert to the possibility of adverse reaction to drug additives. Prescribing information for drug additives to be administered in this manner should be consulted.

If an adverse reaction does occur, discontinue the infusion, evaluate the patient, institute appropriate therapeutic countermeasures and save the remainder of the fluid for examination if deemed necessary.


What should I look out for while using Potassium Chloride in Dextrose and Sodium Chloride?

These solutions are contraindicated where the administration of sodium, potassium or chloride could be clinically detrimental.

Solutions containing dextrose may be contraindicated in patients with hypersensitivity to corn products.

The administration of intravenous solutions can cause fluid and/or solute overload resulting in dilution of serum electrolyte concentrations, overhydration, congested states or pulmonary edema. The risk of dilutional states is inversely proportional to the electrolyte concentration. The risk of solute overload causing congested states with peripheral and pulmonary edema is directly proportional to the electrolyte concentration.

Solutions containing sodium ions should be used with great care, if at all, in patients with congestive heart failure, severe renal insufficiency, and in clinical states in which there is sodium retention with edema.

In patients with diminished renal function, administration of solutions containing sodium or potassium ions may result in sodium or potassium retention.

Solutions containing potassium ions should be used with great care, if at all, in patients with hyperkalemia, severe renal failure, and in conditions in which potassium retention is present.


What might happen if I take too much Potassium Chloride in Dextrose and Sodium Chloride?

In the event of fluid overload during parenteral therapy, reevaluate the patient's condition, and institute appropriate corrective treatment.

In the event of overdosage with potassium-containing solutions, discontinue the infusion immediately and institute corrective therapy to reduce serum potassium levels.

Treatment of hyperkalemia includes the following:


How should I store and handle Potassium Chloride in Dextrose and Sodium Chloride?

Potassium Chloride in Dextrose and Sodium Chloride Injections USP are supplied in EXCEL Containers. The 1000 mL containers are packaged 12 per case and the 250 mL containers are packaged 24 per case.


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Clinical Information

Chemical Structure

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Clinical Pharmacology

These intravenous solutions provide electrolytes and calories, and are a source of water for hydration. They are capable of inducing diuresis depending on the clinical condition of the patient.

Sodium, the major cation of the extracellular fluid, functions primarily in the control of water distribution, fluid balance, and osmotic pressure of body fluids. Sodium is also associated with chloride and bicarbonate in the regulation of the acid-base equilibrium of body fluid.

Potassium, the principal cation of intracellular fluid, participates in carbohydrate utilization and protein synthesis, and is critical in the regulation of nerve conduction and muscle contraction, particularly in the heart.

Chloride, the major extracellular anion, closely follows the metabolism of sodium, and changes in the acid-base balance of the body are reflected by changes in the chloride concentration.

Dextrose provides a source of calories. Dextrose is readily metabolized, may decrease losses of body protein and nitrogen, promotes glycogen deposition and decreases or prevents ketosis if sufficient doses are provided.

Non-Clinical Toxicology
These solutions are contraindicated where the administration of sodium, potassium or chloride could be clinically detrimental.

Solutions containing dextrose may be contraindicated in patients with hypersensitivity to corn products.

The administration of intravenous solutions can cause fluid and/or solute overload resulting in dilution of serum electrolyte concentrations, overhydration, congested states or pulmonary edema. The risk of dilutional states is inversely proportional to the electrolyte concentration. The risk of solute overload causing congested states with peripheral and pulmonary edema is directly proportional to the electrolyte concentration.

Solutions containing sodium ions should be used with great care, if at all, in patients with congestive heart failure, severe renal insufficiency, and in clinical states in which there is sodium retention with edema.

In patients with diminished renal function, administration of solutions containing sodium or potassium ions may result in sodium or potassium retention.

Solutions containing potassium ions should be used with great care, if at all, in patients with hyperkalemia, severe renal failure, and in conditions in which potassium retention is present.

Nephrotoxicity has been reported following concomitant administration of cephalosporins with aminoglycoside antibacterial drugs or potent diuretics such as furosemide. Renal function should be carefully monitored, especially if higher dosages of the aminoglycosides are to be administered or if therapy is prolonged, because of the potential nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity of aminoglycoside antibacterial drugs. Nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity were not noted when ceftazidime was given alone in clinical trials.

Chloramphenicol has been shown to be antagonistic to beta-lactam antibacterial drugs, including ceftazidime, based on studies and time kill curves with enteric gram-negative bacilli. Due to the possibility of antagonism , particularly when bactericidal activity is desired, this drug combination should be avoided.

In common with other antibacterial drugs, ceftazidime may affect the gut flora, leading to lower estrogen reabsorption and reduced efficacy of combined oral estrogen/progesterone contraceptives.

These solutions should be used with care in patients with hypervolemia, renal insufficiency, urinary tract obstruction, or impending or frank cardiac decompensation.

Extraordinary electrolyte losses such as may occur during protracted nasogastric suction, vomiting, diarrhea or gastrointestinal fistula drainage may necessitate additional electrolyte supplementation.

Additional essential electrolytes, minerals and vitamins should be supplied as needed.

Sodium-containing solutions should be administered with caution to patients receiving corticosteroids or corticotropin, or to other salt-retaining patients.

Care should be exercised in administering solutions containing sodium or potassium to patients with renal or cardiovascular insufficiency, with or without congestive heart failure, particularly if they are postoperative or elderly.

Potassium therapy should be guided primarily by serial electrocardiograms, especially in patients receiving digitalis. Serum potassium levels are not necessarily indicative of tissue potassium levels. Solutions containing potassium should be used with caution in the presence of cardiac disease, particularly when accompanied by renal disease.

Solutions containing dextrose should be used with caution in patients with overt or known subclinical diabetes mellitus, or carbohydrate intolerance for any reason.

To minimize the risk of possible incompatibilities arising from mixing any of these solutions with other additives that may be prescribed, the final infusate should be inspected for cloudiness or precipitation immediately after mixing, prior to administration, and periodically during administration.

Do not use plastic containers in series connection.

If administration is controlled by a pumping device, care must be taken to discontinue pumping action before the container runs dry or air embolism may result. If administration is not controlled by a pumping device, refrain from applying excessive pressure (>300mmHg) causing distortion to the container such as wringing or twisting. Such handling could result in breakage of the container.

These solutions are intended for intravenous administration using sterile equipment. It is recommended that intravenous administration apparatus be replaced at least once every 24 hours. Use only if solution is clear and container and seals are intact.

Reactions which may occur because of the solution or the technique of administration include febrile response, infection at the site of injection, venous thrombosis or phlebitis extending from the site of injection, extravasation and hypervolemia.

Too rapid infusion of hypertonic solutions may cause local pain and venous irritation. Rate of administration should be adjusted according to tolerance. Use of the largest peripheral vein and a small bore needle is recommended. (See .)

Symptoms may result from an excess or deficit of one or more of the ions present in the solution; therefore, frequent monitoring of electrolyte levels is essential.

Hypernatremia may be associated with edema and exacerbation of congestive heart failure due to the retention of water, resulting in an expanded extracellular fluid volume.

Reactions reported with the use of potassium-containing solutions include nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and diarrhea. The signs and symptoms of potassium intoxication include paresthesias of the extremities, areflexia, muscular or respiratory paralysis, mental confusion, weakness, hypotension, cardiac arrhythmias, heart block, electrocardiographic abnormalities and cardiac arrest.

Potassium deficits result in disruption of neuromuscular function, and intestinal ileus and dilatation.

If infused in large amounts, chloride ions may cause a loss of bicarbonate ions, resulting in an acidifying effect.

The physician should also be alert to the possibility of adverse reaction to drug additives. Prescribing information for drug additives to be administered in this manner should be consulted.

If an adverse reaction does occur, discontinue the infusion, evaluate the patient, institute appropriate therapeutic countermeasures and save the remainder of the fluid for examination if deemed necessary.

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Reference

This information is obtained from the National Institute of Health's Standard Packaging Label drug database.
"https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/"

While we update our database periodically, we cannot guarantee it is always updated to the latest version.

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Clonazepam Description Each single-scored tablet, for oral administration, contains 0.5 mg, 1 mg, or 2 mg Clonazepam, USP, a benzodiazepine. Each tablet also contains corn starch, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and povidone. Clonazepam tablets USP 0.5 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake. Clonazepam tablets USP 1 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake, as well as FD&C Blue No. 1 Aluminum Lake. Chemically, Clonazepam, USP is 5-(o-chlorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-7-nitro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one. It is a light yellow crystalline powder. It has the following structural formula: C15H10ClN3O3 M.W. 315.72
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Interactions

Interactions

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