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prilocaine hydrochloride

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Overview

What is Prilocaine Hydrochloride?

Prilocaine Hydrochloride Injection, USP, 4% is a sterile, non pyrogenic isotonic solution that contains a local anesthetic agent and is administered parenterally by injection. Seefor specific uses. The quantitative composition is shown in Table 1.

Prilocaine Hydrochloride Injection, USP, 4% contains prilocaine HCl, which is chemically designated as propanamide, N-(2-methyl-phenyl) -2- (propylamino)-, monohydrochloride and has the following structural formula:

Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration.

The specific quantitative composition is shown in Table 1.

Note: Sodium hydroxide or hydrochloric acid may be used to adjust the pH of Prilocaine Hydrochloride Injection, USP, 4%.



What does Prilocaine Hydrochloride look like?



What are the available doses of Prilocaine Hydrochloride?

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What should I talk to my health care provider before I take Prilocaine Hydrochloride?

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How should I use Prilocaine Hydrochloride?

Prilocaine Hydrochloride Injection, USP, 4% is indicated for the production of local anesthesia in dentistry by nerve block or infiltration techniques. Only accepted procedures for these techniques as described in standard textbooks are recommended.

The dosage of Prilocaine Hydrochloride Injection, USP, 4% varies and depends on the physical status of the patient, the area of the oral cavity to be anesthetized, the vascularity of the oral tissues, and the technique of anesthesia. The least volume of injection that results in effective local anesthesia should be administered. For specific techniques and procedures of local anesthesia in the oral cavity, refer to standard textbooks.


What interacts with Prilocaine Hydrochloride?

Prilocaine is contraindicated in patients with a known history of hypersensitivity to local anesthetics of the amide type and in those rare patients with congenital or idiopathic methemoglobinemia.



What are the warnings of Prilocaine Hydrochloride?

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DENTAL PRACTITIONERS WHO EMPLOY LOCAL ANESTHETIC AGENTS SHOULD BE WELL VERSED IN DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT OF EMERGENCIES THAT MAY ARISE FROM THEIR USE. RESUSCITATIVE EQUIPMENT, OXYGEN AND OTHER RESUSCITATIVE DRUGS SHOULD BE AVAILABLE FOR IMMEDIATE USE.

To minimize the likelihood of intravascular injection, aspiration should be performed before the local anesthetic solution is injected. If blood is aspirated, the needle must be repositioned until no return of blood can be elicited by aspiration. Note, however, that the absence of blood in the syringe does not assure that intravascular injection will be avoided.

Methemoglobinemia

Prilocaine has been associated with the development of methemoglobinemia. Very young patients, patients with congenital or idiopathic methemoglobinemia, or patients with glucose-6-phosphate deficiencies are more susceptible to methemoglobinemia.

Patients taking drugs associated with drug induced methemoglobinemia such as sulfonamides, acetaminophen, acetanilid, aniline dyes, benzocaine, chloroquine, dapsone, napthalene, nitrates and nitrites, nitrofurantoin, nitroglycerin, nitroprusside, pamaquine, para-aminosalicylic acid, phenacetin, phenobarbital, phenytoin, primaquine, and quinine are also at greater risk for developing methemoglobinemia.


What are the precautions of Prilocaine Hydrochloride?

General

The safety and effectiveness of prilocaine depend on proper dosage, correct technique, adequate precautions, and readiness for emergencies. Standard textbooks should be consulted for specific techniques and precautions for various regional anesthetic procedures. Resuscitative equipment, oxygen, and other resuscitative drugs should be available for immediate use. (Seeand.) The lowest dosage that results in effective anesthesia should be used to avoid high plasma levels and serious adverse effects. Repeated doses of prilocaine may cause significant increases in blood levels with each repeated dose because of slow accumulation of the drug or its metabolites. Tolerance to elevated blood levels varies with the status of the patient. Debilitated, elderly patients, acutely ill patients, and children should be given reduced doses commensurate with their age and physical status. Prilocaine should also be used with caution in patients with severe shock or heart block.

Cardiovascular and respiratory (adequacy of ventilation) vital signs and the patient's state of consciousness should be monitored after each local anesthetic injection. Restlessness, anxiety, tinnitus, dizziness, blurred vision, tremors, depression or drowsiness should alert the practitioner to the possibility of central nervous system toxicity. Signs and symptoms of depressed cardiovascular function may commonly result from a vasovagal reaction, particularly if the patient is in an upright position. (See).

Since amide-type local anesthetics are metabolized by the liver, prilocaine should be used with caution in patients with hepatic disease.

Patients with severe hepatic disease, because of their inability to metabolize local anesthetics normally, are at greater risk of developing toxic plasma concentrations. Prilocaine should also be used with caution in patients with impaired cardiovascular function since they may be less able to compensate for functional changes associated with the prolongation of A-V conduction produced by these drugs.

Many drugs used during the conduct of anesthesia are considered potential triggering agents for familial malignant hyperthermia. Since it is not known whether amide-type local anesthetics may trigger this reaction and since the need for supplemental general anesthesia cannot be predicted in advance, it is suggested that a standard protocol for the management of malignant hyperthermia should be available. Early unexplained signs of tachycardia, tachypnea, labile blood pressure, and metabolic acidosis may precede temperature elevation. Successful outcome is dependent on early diagnosis, prompt discontinuance of the suspect triggering agent(s) and institution of treatment, including oxygen therapy, indicated supportive measures and dantrolene (consult dantrolene sodium intravenous package insert before using).

Prilocaine should be used with caution in persons with known drug sensitivities. Patients allergic to para-aminobenzoic acid derivatives (procaine, tetracaine, benzocaine, etc.) have not shown cross sensitivity to prilocaine.

Use in the Head and Neck Area

Small doses of local anesthetics injected into the head and neck area, including retrobulbar, dental and stellate ganglion blocks, may produce adverse reactions similar to systemic toxicity seen with unintentional intravascular injections of larger doses. Confusion, convulsions, respiratory depression and/or respiratory arrest, and cardiovascular stimulation or depression have been reported. These reactions may be due to intra-arterial injection of the local anesthetic with retrograde flow to the cerebral circulation. Patients receiving these blocks should have their circulation and respiration monitored and be constantly observed. Resuscitative equipment and personnel for treating adverse reactions should be immediately available. Dosage recommendations should not be exceeded. (See.)

Information for Patients

The patient should be informed of the possibility of temporary loss of sensation and muscle function following infiltration or nerve block injections.

The patient should be advised to exert caution to avoid inadvertent trauma to the lips, tongue, cheek mucosae, or soft palate when these structures are anesthetized. The ingestion of food should therefore be postponed until normal function returns.

The patient should be advised to consult the dentist if anesthesia persists, or if a rash develops.

Clinically Significant Drug Interactions

Concurrent administration of vasopressor drugs and ergot-type oxytocic drugs may cause severe, persistent hypertension or cerebrovascular accidents.

Prilocaine may contribute to the formation of methemoglobinemia in patients treated with other drugs known to cause this condition (seesubsection of).

Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions

The intramuscular injection of prilocaine may result in an increase in creatine phosphokinase levels. Thus, the use of this enzyme determination, without isoenzyme separation, as a diagnostic test for the presence of acute myocardial infarction may be compromised by the intramuscular injection of prilocaine.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Studies of prilocaine in animals to evaluate the carcinogenic and mutagenic potential or the effect on fertility have not been conducted.

Chronic oral toxicity studies of ortho-toluidine, a metabolite of prilocaine, in mice (150 to 4800 mg/kg) and rats (150 to 800 mg/kg) have shown that ortho-toluidine is a carcinogen in both species. The lowest dose corresponds to approximately 50 times the maximum amount of ortho-toluidine to which a 50 kg subject would be expected to be exposed following a single injection (8 mg/kg) of prilocaine.

Ortho-toluidine (0.5 mg/mL) showed positive results inDNA repair and phage-induction assays. Urine concentrates from rats treated with ortho-toluidine (300 mg/kg, orally) were mutagenic forwith metabolic activation. Several other tests, including reverse mutations in five differentstrains with or without metabolic activation and single strand breaks in DNA of V79 Chinese hamster cells, were negative.

Use in Pregnancy

Nursing Mothers

It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when prilocaine is administered to a nursing woman.

Pediatric Use

Dosages in children should be reduced, commensurate with age, body weight, and physical condition. (See.)


What are the side effects of Prilocaine Hydrochloride?

Swelling and persistent paresthesia of the lips and oral tissues may occur. Persistent paresthesias lasting weeks to months, and in rare instances paresthesia lasting greater than one year, have been reported.

Adverse experiences following the administration of prilocaine are similar in nature to those observed with other amide local anesthetic agents. These adverse experiences are, in general, dose-related and may result from high plasma levels caused by excessive dosage, rapid absorption or unintentional intravascular injection, or may result from a hypersensitivity, idiosyncrasy or diminished tolerance on the part of the patient. Serious adverse experiences are generally systemic in nature. The following types are those most commonly reported:

Central Nervous System

CNS manifestations are excitatory and/or depressant and may be characterized by lightheadedness, nervousness, apprehension, euphoria, confusion, dizziness, drowsiness, tinnitus, blurred or double vision, vomiting, sensations of heat, cold or numbness, twitching, tremors, convulsions, unconsciousness, respiratory depression, and arrest. The excitatory manifestations may be very brief or may not occur at all, in which case the first manifestation of toxicity may be drowsiness merging into unconsciousness and respiratory arrest.

Drowsiness following the administration of prilocaine is usually an early sign of a high blood level of the drug and may occur as a consequence of rapid absorption.

Cardiovascular System

Cardiovascular manifestations are usually depressant and are characterized by bradycardia, hypotension, and cardiovascular collapse, which may lead to cardiac arrest.

Signs and symptoms of depressed cardiovascular function may commonly result from a vasovagal reaction, particularly if the patient is in an upright position. Less commonly, they may result from a direct effect of the drug. Failure to recognize the premonitory signs such as sweating, a feeling of faintness, changes in pulse or sensorium may result in progressive cerebral hypoxia and seizure or serious cardiovascular catastrophe. Management consists of placing the patient in the recumbent position and ventilation with oxygen. Supportive treatment of circulatory depression may require the administration of intravenous fluids, and, when appropriate, a vasopressor (e.g., ephedrine) as directed by the clinical situation.

Allergic

Allergic reactions are characterized by cutaneous lesions, urticaria, edema, or anaphylactoid reactions. Allergic reactions as a result of sensitivity to prilocaine are extremely rare and, if they occur, should be managed by conventional means. The detection of sensitivity by skin testing is of doubtful value.

Neurologic

The incidences of adverse reactions (e.g., persistent neurologic deficit) associated with the use of local anesthetics may be related to the technique employed, the total dose of local anesthetic administered, the particular drug used, the route of administration, and the physical condition of the patient.


What should I look out for while using Prilocaine Hydrochloride?

Prilocaine is contraindicated in patients with a known history of hypersensitivity to local anesthetics of the amide type and in those rare patients with congenital or idiopathic methemoglobinemia.

DENTAL PRACTITIONERS WHO EMPLOY LOCAL ANESTHETIC AGENTS SHOULD BE WELL VERSED IN DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT OF EMERGENCIES THAT MAY ARISE FROM THEIR USE. RESUSCITATIVE EQUIPMENT, OXYGEN AND OTHER RESUSCITATIVE DRUGS SHOULD BE AVAILABLE FOR IMMEDIATE USE.

To minimize the likelihood of intravascular injection, aspiration should be performed before the local anesthetic solution is injected. If blood is aspirated, the needle must be repositioned until no return of blood can be elicited by aspiration. Note, however, that the absence of blood in the syringe does not assure that intravascular injection will be avoided.


What might happen if I take too much Prilocaine Hydrochloride?

Acute emergencies from local anesthetics are generally related to high plasma levels encountered during therapeutic use of local anesthetics (see,, and).


How should I store and handle Prilocaine Hydrochloride?

Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted between 15° and 30°C (59° and 86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].Prilocaine Hydrochloride Injection, USP, 4% (NDC 0362-9014-50) is dispensed in 1.8 mL cartridges, packed 50 per box.


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Clinical Information

Chemical Structure

No Image found
Clinical Pharmacology

Prilocaine stabilizes the neuronal membrane by inhibiting the ionic fluxes required for the initiation and conduction of impulses, thereby effecting local anesthetic action.

Non-Clinical Toxicology
Prilocaine is contraindicated in patients with a known history of hypersensitivity to local anesthetics of the amide type and in those rare patients with congenital or idiopathic methemoglobinemia.

DENTAL PRACTITIONERS WHO EMPLOY LOCAL ANESTHETIC AGENTS SHOULD BE WELL VERSED IN DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT OF EMERGENCIES THAT MAY ARISE FROM THEIR USE. RESUSCITATIVE EQUIPMENT, OXYGEN AND OTHER RESUSCITATIVE DRUGS SHOULD BE AVAILABLE FOR IMMEDIATE USE.

To minimize the likelihood of intravascular injection, aspiration should be performed before the local anesthetic solution is injected. If blood is aspirated, the needle must be repositioned until no return of blood can be elicited by aspiration. Note, however, that the absence of blood in the syringe does not assure that intravascular injection will be avoided.

Concurrent administration of vasopressor drugs and ergot-type oxytocic drugs may cause severe, persistent hypertension or cerebrovascular accidents.

Prilocaine may contribute to the formation of methemoglobinemia in patients treated with other drugs known to cause this condition (seesubsection of).

The safety and effectiveness of prilocaine depend on proper dosage, correct technique, adequate precautions, and readiness for emergencies. Standard textbooks should be consulted for specific techniques and precautions for various regional anesthetic procedures. Resuscitative equipment, oxygen, and other resuscitative drugs should be available for immediate use. (Seeand.) The lowest dosage that results in effective anesthesia should be used to avoid high plasma levels and serious adverse effects. Repeated doses of prilocaine may cause significant increases in blood levels with each repeated dose because of slow accumulation of the drug or its metabolites. Tolerance to elevated blood levels varies with the status of the patient. Debilitated, elderly patients, acutely ill patients, and children should be given reduced doses commensurate with their age and physical status. Prilocaine should also be used with caution in patients with severe shock or heart block.

Cardiovascular and respiratory (adequacy of ventilation) vital signs and the patient's state of consciousness should be monitored after each local anesthetic injection. Restlessness, anxiety, tinnitus, dizziness, blurred vision, tremors, depression or drowsiness should alert the practitioner to the possibility of central nervous system toxicity. Signs and symptoms of depressed cardiovascular function may commonly result from a vasovagal reaction, particularly if the patient is in an upright position. (See).

Since amide-type local anesthetics are metabolized by the liver, prilocaine should be used with caution in patients with hepatic disease.

Patients with severe hepatic disease, because of their inability to metabolize local anesthetics normally, are at greater risk of developing toxic plasma concentrations. Prilocaine should also be used with caution in patients with impaired cardiovascular function since they may be less able to compensate for functional changes associated with the prolongation of A-V conduction produced by these drugs.

Many drugs used during the conduct of anesthesia are considered potential triggering agents for familial malignant hyperthermia. Since it is not known whether amide-type local anesthetics may trigger this reaction and since the need for supplemental general anesthesia cannot be predicted in advance, it is suggested that a standard protocol for the management of malignant hyperthermia should be available. Early unexplained signs of tachycardia, tachypnea, labile blood pressure, and metabolic acidosis may precede temperature elevation. Successful outcome is dependent on early diagnosis, prompt discontinuance of the suspect triggering agent(s) and institution of treatment, including oxygen therapy, indicated supportive measures and dantrolene (consult dantrolene sodium intravenous package insert before using).

Prilocaine should be used with caution in persons with known drug sensitivities. Patients allergic to para-aminobenzoic acid derivatives (procaine, tetracaine, benzocaine, etc.) have not shown cross sensitivity to prilocaine.

Swelling and persistent paresthesia of the lips and oral tissues may occur. Persistent paresthesias lasting weeks to months, and in rare instances paresthesia lasting greater than one year, have been reported.

Adverse experiences following the administration of prilocaine are similar in nature to those observed with other amide local anesthetic agents. These adverse experiences are, in general, dose-related and may result from high plasma levels caused by excessive dosage, rapid absorption or unintentional intravascular injection, or may result from a hypersensitivity, idiosyncrasy or diminished tolerance on the part of the patient. Serious adverse experiences are generally systemic in nature. The following types are those most commonly reported:

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Reference

This information is obtained from the National Institute of Health's Standard Packaging Label drug database.
"https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/"

While we update our database periodically, we cannot guarantee it is always updated to the latest version.

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Professional

Clonazepam Description Each single-scored tablet, for oral administration, contains 0.5 mg, 1 mg, or 2 mg Clonazepam, USP, a benzodiazepine. Each tablet also contains corn starch, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and povidone. Clonazepam tablets USP 0.5 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake. Clonazepam tablets USP 1 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake, as well as FD&C Blue No. 1 Aluminum Lake. Chemically, Clonazepam, USP is 5-(o-chlorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-7-nitro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one. It is a light yellow crystalline powder. It has the following structural formula: C15H10ClN3O3 M.W. 315.72
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Tips

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Interactions

Interactions

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