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Prograf

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Overview

What is Prograf?

Prograf is available for oral administration as capsules (tacrolimus capsules USP) containing the equivalent of 0.5 mg, 1 mg or 5 mg of anhydrous tacrolimus USP. Inactive ingredients include lactose monohydrate NF, hypromellose USP, croscarmellose sodium NF, and magnesium stearate NF. The 0.5 mg capsule shell contains gelatin NF, titanium dioxide USP and ferric oxide NF, the 1 mg capsule shell contains gelatin NF and titanium dioxide USP, and the 5 mg capsule shell contains gelatin NF, titanium dioxide USP and ferric oxide NF.

Prograf is also available as a sterile solution (tacrolimus injection) containing the equivalent of 5 mg anhydrous tacrolimus USP in 1 mL for administration by intravenous infusion only. Each mL contains polyoxyl 60 hydrogenated castor oil (HCO-60), 200 mg, and dehydrated alcohol, USP, 80.0% v/v. Prograf injection must be diluted with 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection or 5% Dextrose Injection before use.

Tacrolimus, previously known as FK506, is the active ingredient in Prograf. Tacrolimus is a macrolide immunosuppressant produced by . Chemically, tacrolimus is designated as [3-[3*[(1*,3*,4*)], 4*,5*,8*,9,12*,14*,15*,16*,18*,19*,26a*]] -5,6,8,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,24,25,26,26a-hexadecahydro-5,19-dihydroxy-3-[2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxycyclohexyl)-1-methylethenyl]-14,16-dimethoxy-4,10,12,18-tetramethyl-8-(2-propenyl)-15,19-epoxy-3H-pyrido[2,1-][1,4] oxaazacyclotricosine-1,7,20,21(4H,23H)-tetrone, monohydrate.

The chemical structure of tacrolimus is:

Tacrolimus has an empirical formula of CHNO•HO and a formula weight of 822.03. Tacrolimus appears as white crystals or crystalline powder. It is practically insoluble in water, freely soluble in ethanol, and very soluble in methanol and chloroform.



What does Prograf look like?



What are the available doses of Prograf?

•   Oblong, hard capsule for oral administration contains anhydrous tacrolimus USP as follows:

      °   0.5 mg, light-yellow color, imprinted in red “0.5 mg” on the capsule cap and “logo607”* on capsule body

      °   1 mg, white color, imprinted in red “1 mg” on the capsule cap and “logo617”* on capsule body

      °   5 mg, grayish-red color, imprinted with white “5 mg” on the capsule cap and “logo657”* on capsule body           *The logo is a letter 'f' in a box as shown on the capsules --  

•   1 mL ampule for IV infusion contains anhydrous tacrolimus USP as follows:

      °   5 mg/mL, sterile solution

What should I talk to my health care provider before I take Prograf?

How should I use Prograf?

Prograf is indicated for the prophylaxis of organ rejection in patients receiving allogeneic kidney transplants. It is recommended that Prograf be used concomitantly with azathioprine or mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and adrenal corticosteroids. Therapeutic drug monitoring is recommended for all patients receiving Prograf

The initial oral dosage recommendations for adult patients with kidney, liver, or heart transplants along with recommendations for whole blood trough concentrations are shown in . The initial dose of Prograf should be administered no sooner than 6 hours after transplantation in the liver and heart transplant patients. In kidney transplant patients, the initial dose of Prograf may be administered within 24 hours of transplantation, but should be delayed until renal function has recovered. For blood concentration monitoring details see ().

Dosing should be titrated based on clinical assessments of rejection and tolerability. Lower Prograf dosages than the recommended initial dosage may be sufficient as maintenance therapy. Adjunct therapy with adrenal corticosteroids is recommended early post-transplant.

The data in kidney transplant patients indicate that the Black patients required a higher dose to attain comparable trough concentrations compared to Caucasian patients ().

Initial Dose – Injection

Prograf injection should be used only as a continuous IV infusion and when the patient cannot tolerate oral administration of Prograf capsules. Prograf injection should be discontinued as soon as the patient can tolerate oral administration of Prograf capsules, usually within 2-3 days. In a patient receiving an IV infusion, the first dose of oral therapy should be given 8-12 hours after discontinuing the IV infusion.

The observed trough concentrations described above pertain to oral administration of Prograf only; while monitoring Prograf concentrations in patients receiving Prograf injection as a continuous IV infusion may have some utility, the observed concentrations will not represent comparable exposures to those estimated by the trough concentrations observed in patients on oral therapy.

The recommended starting dose of Prograf injection is 0.03-0.05 mg/kg/day in kidney and liver transplant and 0.01 mg/kg/day in heart transplant given as a continuous IV infusion. Adult patients should receive doses at the lower end of the dosing range. Concomitant adrenal corticosteroid therapy is recommended early post-transplantation.

Anaphylactic reactions have occurred with injectables containing castor oil derivatives, such as Prograf injection.


What interacts with Prograf?

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What are the warnings of Prograf?

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What are the precautions of Prograf?

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What are the side effects of Prograf?

Sorry No records found


What should I look out for while using Prograf?

Prograf is contraindicated in patients with a hypersensitivity to tacrolimus. Prograf injection is contraindicated in patients with a hypersensitivity to HCO-60 (polyoxyl 60 hydrogenated castor oil). Hypersensitivity symptoms reported include dyspnea, rash, pruritus, and acute respiratory distress syndrome .


What might happen if I take too much Prograf?

Limited overdosage experience is available. Acute overdosages of up to 30 times the intended dose have been reported. Almost all cases have been asymptomatic and all patients recovered with no sequelae. Acute overdosage was sometimes followed by adverse reactions consistent with those listed in (including tremors, abnormal renal function, hypertension, and peripheral edema); in one case of acute overdosage, transient urticaria and lethargy were observed. Based on the poor aqueous solubility and extensive erythrocyte and plasma protein binding, it is anticipated that tacrolimus is not dialyzable to any significant extent; there is no experience with charcoal hemoperfusion. The oral use of activated charcoal has been reported in treating acute overdoses, but experience has not been sufficient to warrant recommending its use. General supportive measures and treatment of specific symptoms should be followed in all cases of overdosage.

In acute oral and IV toxicity studies, mortalities were seen at or above the following doses: in adult rats, 52 times the recommended human oral dose; in immature rats, 16 times the recommended oral dose; and in adult rats, 16 times the recommended human IV dose (all based on body surface area corrections).


How should I store and handle Prograf?

STORE Dicyclomine Hydrochloride Tablets, USP 20 mg are supplied as Blue, Round Tablets; Embossed "WW27" and are available in:Bottles of 30 - 68788-9934-3Bottles of 60 - 68788-9934-6Bottles of 100 - 68788-9934-1Dicyclomine Hydrochloride Tablets, USP 20 mg are supplied as Blue, Round Tablets; Embossed "WW27" and are available in:Bottles of 30 - 68788-9934-3Bottles of 60 - 68788-9934-6Bottles of 100 - 68788-9934-1Dicyclomine Hydrochloride Tablets, USP 20 mg are supplied as Blue, Round Tablets; Embossed "WW27" and are available in:Bottles of 30 - 68788-9934-3Bottles of 60 - 68788-9934-6Bottles of 100 - 68788-9934-1


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Clinical Information

Chemical Structure

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Clinical Pharmacology

Tacrolimus inhibits T-lymphocyte activation, although the exact mechanism of action is not known. Experimental evidence suggests that tacrolimus binds to an intracellular protein, FKBP-12. A complex of tacrolimus-FKBP-12, calcium, calmodulin, and calcineurin is then formed and the phosphatase activity of calcineurin inhibited. This effect may prevent the dephosphorylation and translocation of nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NF-AT), a nuclear component thought to initiate gene transcription for the formation of lymphokines (such as interleukin-2, gamma interferon). The net result is the inhibition of T-lymphocyte activation (i.e., immunosuppression).

Tacrolimus prolongs the survival of the host and transplanted graft in animal transplant models of liver, kidney, heart, bone marrow, small bowel and pancreas, lung and trachea, skin, cornea, and limb.

In animals, tacrolimus has been demonstrated to suppress some humoral immunity and, to a greater extent, cell-mediated reactions such as allograft rejection, delayed type hypersensitivity, collagen-induced arthritis, experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, and graft versus host disease.

Non-Clinical Toxicology
Prograf is contraindicated in patients with a hypersensitivity to tacrolimus. Prograf injection is contraindicated in patients with a hypersensitivity to HCO-60 (polyoxyl 60 hydrogenated castor oil). Hypersensitivity symptoms reported include dyspnea, rash, pruritus, and acute respiratory distress syndrome .





NSAIDs may diminish the antihypertensive effect of ACE-inhibitors, ARBs, or beta-blockers (including propranolol).

Monitor patients taking NSAIDs concomitantly with ACE-inhibitors, ARBs, or beta-blockers for changes in blood pressure.

In addition, in patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or have compromised renal function, co-administration of NSAIDs with ACE inhibitors or ARBs may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure. Monitor these patients closely for signs of worsening renal function.





Concomitant administration of some antacids (magnesium oxide or aluminum hydroxide) and sucralfate can delay the absorption of naproxen.





When naproxen as naproxen tablets is administered with aspirin, its protein binding is reduced, although the clearance of free naproxen tablets is not altered. The clinical significance of this interaction is not known; however, as with other NSAIDs, concomitant administration of naproxen and aspirin is not generally recommended because of the potential of increased adverse effects.





As with other NSAIDs, concomitant administration of cholestyramine can delay the absorption of naproxen.





Clinical studies, as well as postmarketing observations, have shown that naproxen tablets can reduce the natriuretic effect of furosemide and thiazides in some patients. This response has been attributed to inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis. During concomitant therapy with NSAIDs, the patient should be observed closely for signs of renal failure (see ), as well as to assure diuretic efficacy.





NSAIDs have produced an elevation of plasma lithium levels and a reduction in renal lithium clearance. The mean minimum lithium concentration increased 15% and the renal clearance was decreased by approximately 20%. These effects have been attributed to inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis by the NSAID. Thus, when NSAIDs and lithium are administered concurrently, subjects should be observed carefully for signs of lithium toxicity.





NSAIDs have been reported to competitively inhibit methotrexate accumulation in rabbit kidney slices. Naproxen and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have been reported to reduce the tubular secretion of methotrexate in an animal model. This may indicate that they could enhance the toxicity of methotrexate. Caution should be used when NSAIDs are administered concomitantly with methotrexate.





The effects of warfarin and NSAIDs on GI bleeding are synergistic, such that users of both drugs together have a risk of serious GI bleeding higher than users of either drug alone. No significant interactions have been observed in clinical studies with naproxen and coumarin-type anticoagulants. However, caution is advised since interactions have been seen with other nonsteroidal agents of this class. The free fraction of warfarin may increase substantially in some subjects and naproxen interferes with platelet function.





There is an increased risk of gastrointestinal bleeding when selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are combined with NSAIDs. Caution should be used when NSAIDs are administered concomitantly with SSRIs.

Other Information Concerning Drug Interactions

Naproxen is highly bound to plasma albumin; it thus has a theoretical potential for interaction with other albumin-bound drugs such as coumarin-type anticoagulants, sulphonylureas, hydantoins, other NSAIDs, and aspirin. Patients simultaneously receiving naproxen and a hydantoin, sulphonamide or sulphonylurea should be observed for adjustment of dose if required.

Probenecid given concurrently increases naproxen anion plasma levels and extends its plasma half-life significantly.

Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions

Naproxen may decrease platelet aggregation and prolong bleeding time. This effect should be kept in mind when bleeding times are determined.

The administration of naproxen may result in increased urinary values for 17-ketogenic steroids because of an interaction between the drug and/or its metabolites with m-di-nitrobenzene used in this assay. Although 17-hydroxy-corticosteroid measurements (Porter-Silber test) do not appear to be artifactually altered, it is suggested that therapy with naproxen be temporarily discontinued 72 hours before adrenal function tests are performed if the Porter-Silber test is to be used.

Naproxen may interfere with some urinary assays of 5-hydroxy indoleacetic acid (5HIAA).

Carcinogenesis

A 2-year study was performed in rats to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of naproxen at rat doses of 8, 16, and 24 mg/kg/day (50, 100, and 150 mg/m). The maximum dose used was 0.28 times the systemic exposure to humans at the recommended dose. No evidence of tumorigenicity was found.

Only physicians experienced in immunosuppressive therapy and management of organ transplant patients should use Prograf. Patients receiving the drug should be managed in facilities equipped and staffed with adequate laboratory and supportive medical resources. The physicians responsible for maintenance therapy should have complete information requisite for the follow up of the patient .

The following serious and otherwise important adverse drug reactions are discussed in greater detail in other sections of labeling:

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Reference

This information is obtained from the National Institute of Health's Standard Packaging Label drug database.
"https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/"

While we update our database periodically, we cannot guarantee it is always updated to the latest version.

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Professional

Clonazepam Description Each single-scored tablet, for oral administration, contains 0.5 mg, 1 mg, or 2 mg Clonazepam, USP, a benzodiazepine. Each tablet also contains corn starch, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and povidone. Clonazepam tablets USP 0.5 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake. Clonazepam tablets USP 1 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake, as well as FD&C Blue No. 1 Aluminum Lake. Chemically, Clonazepam, USP is 5-(o-chlorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-7-nitro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one. It is a light yellow crystalline powder. It has the following structural formula: C15H10ClN3O3 M.W. 315.72
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Tips

Tips

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Interactions

Interactions

A total of 440 drugs (1549 brand and generic names) are known to interact with Imbruvica (ibrutinib). 228 major drug interactions (854 brand and generic names) 210 moderate drug interactions (691 brand and generic names) 2 minor drug interactions (4 brand and generic names) Show all medications in the database that may interact with Imbruvica (ibrutinib).