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Promethazine DM

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Overview

What is Promethazine DM?

Each 5 mL (one teaspoonful), for oral administration contains: Dextromethorphan hydrobromide 15 mg; promethazine hydrochloride 6.25 mg. Alcohol 7%.

Inactive Ingredients: Ascorbic acid, citric acid, D and C yellow #10, FD and C yellow #6, menthol, methylparaben, orange pineapple flavor, propylene glycol, propylparaben, purified water, saccharin sodium, sodium benzoate, sodium citrate and sucrose.

Dextromethorphan hydrobromide is a salt of the methyl ether of the dextrorotatory isomer of levorphanol, a narcotic analgesic. It is chemically designated as 3-methoxy-17-methyl-9α, 13α, 14α-morphinan hydrobromide monohydrate. Dextromethorphan hydrobromide occurs as white crystals sparingly soluble in water and freely soluble in alcohol. It has a molecular weight of 370.32, a molecular formula of CHNO•HBr•HO, and the following structural formula:

Promethazine is a racemic compound. Promethazine hydrochloride, a phenothiazine derivative, is chemically designated as 10-Phenothiazine-10-ethanamine, ,, α-trimethyl-monohydrochloride.

Promethazine hydrochloride occurs as a white to faint yellow, practically odorless, crystalline powder which slowly oxidizes and turns blue on prolonged exposure to air. It is soluble in water and freely soluble in alcohol. It has a molecular weight of 320.88, a molecular formula of CHNS•HCI, and the following structural formula:



What does Promethazine DM look like?



What are the available doses of Promethazine DM?

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What should I talk to my health care provider before I take Promethazine DM?

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How should I use Promethazine DM?

Promethazine hydrochloride and dextromethorphan hydrobromide syrup is indicated for the temporary relief of coughs and upper respiratory symptoms associated with allergy or the common cold.

The average effective dose is given in the following table:


What interacts with Promethazine DM?

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What are the warnings of Promethazine DM?

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What are the precautions of Promethazine DM?

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What are the side effects of Promethazine DM?

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What should I look out for while using Promethazine DM?

Dextromethorphan should not be used in patients receiving a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) (see ).

Promethazine is contraindicated in comatose states, and in individuals known to be hypersensitive or to have had an idiosyncratic reaction to promethazine or to other phenothiazines.

Antihistamines are contraindicated for use in the treatment of lower respiratory tract symptoms, including asthma.

WARNINGS

Administration of dextromethorphan may be accompanied by histamine release and should be used with caution in atopic children.

Promethazine may impair the mental and/or physical abilities required for the performance of potentially hazardous tasks, such as driving a vehicle or operating machinery. The impairment may be amplified by concomitant use of other central nervous system depressants such as alcohol, sedatives/hypnotics (including barbiturates), narcotics, narcotic analgesics, general anesthetics, tricyclic antidepressants, and tranquilizers; therefore, such agents should either be eliminated or given in reduced dosage in the presence of promethazine HCl (see and ).

Promethazine may lead to potentially fatal respiratory depression.

Use of promethazine in patients with compromised respiratory function (e.g., COPD, sleep apnea) should be avoided.

Promethazine may lower seizure threshold. It should be used with caution in persons with seizure disorders or in persons who are using concomitant medications, such as narcotics or local anesthetics, which may also affect seizure threshold.

Promethazine should be used with caution in patients with bone marrow depression. Leukopenia and agranulocytosis have been reported, usually when promethazine HCl has been used in association with other known marrow toxic agents.

A potentially fatal symptom complex sometimes referred to as Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS) has been reported in association with promethazine HCl alone or in combination with antipsychotic drugs. Clinical manifestations of NMS are hyperpyrexia, muscle rigidity, altered mental status and evidence of autonomic instability (irregular pulse or blood pressure, tachycardia, diaphoresis and cardiac dysrhythmias).

The diagnostic evaluation of patients with this syndrome is complicated. In arriving at a diagnosis, it is important to identify cases where the clinical presentation includes both serious medical illness (e.g., pneumonia, systemic infection, etc.) and untreated or inadequately treated extrapyramidal signs and symptoms (EPS). Other important considerations in the differential diagnosis include central anticholinergic toxicity, heat stroke, drug fever and primary central nervous system (CNS) pathology.

The management of NMS should include 1) immediate discontinuation of promethazine HCl, antipsychotic drugs, if any, and other drugs not essential to concurrent therapy, 2) intensive symptomatic treatment and medical monitoring, and 3) treatment of any concomitant serious medical problems for which specific treatments are available. There is no general agreement about specific pharmacological treatment regimens for uncomplicated NMS.

Since recurrences of NMS have been reported with phenothiazines, the reintroduction of promethazine HCl should be carefully considered.

PROMETHAZINE PRODUCTS ARE CONTRAINDICATED FOR USE IN PEDIATRIC PATIENTS LESS THAN TWO YEARS OF AGE.

CAUTION SHOULD BE EXERCISED WHEN ADMINISTERING PROMETHAZINE PRODUCTS TO PEDIATRIC PATIENTS 2 YEARS OF AGE AND OLDER BECAUSE OF THE POTENTIAL FOR FATAL RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION. RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION AND APNEA, SOMETIMES ASSOCIATED WITH DEATH, ARE STRONGLY ASSOCIATED WITH PROMETHAZINE PRODUCTS AND ARE NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO INDIVIDUALIZED WEIGHT-BASED DOSING, WHICH MIGHT OTHERWISE PERMIT SAFE ADMINISTRATION. CONCOMITANT ADMINISTRATION OF PROMETHAZINE PRODUCTS WITH OTHER RESPIRATORY DEPRESSANTS HAS AN ASSOCIATION WITH RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION, AND SOMETIMES DEATH, IN PEDIATRIC PATIENTS.

ANTIEMETICS ARE NOT RECOMMENDED FOR TREATMENT OF UNCOMPLICATED VOMITING IN PEDIATRIC PATIENTS, AND THEIR USE SHOULD BE LIMITED TO PROLONGED VOMITING OF KNOWN ETIOLOGY. THE EXTRAPYRAMIDAL SYMPTOMS WHICH CAN OCCUR SECONDARY TO PROMETHAZINE HYDROCHLORIDE ADMINISTRATION MAY BE CONFUSED WITH THE CNS SIGNS OF UNDIAGNOSED PRIMARY DISEASE, e.g., ENCEPHALOPATHY OR REYE'S SYNDROME. THE USE OF PROMETHAZINE PRODUCTS SHOULD BE AVOIDED IN PEDIATRIC PATIENTS WHOSE SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS MAY SUGGEST REYE'S SYNDROME OR OTHER HEPATIC DISEASES.

Excessively large dosages of antihistamines, including promethazine hydrochloride, in pediatric patients may cause sudden death (see ). Hallucinations and convulsions have occurred with therapeutic doses and overdoses of promethazine hydrochloride in pediatric patients. In pediatric patients who are acutely ill associated with dehydration, there is an increased susceptibility to dystonias with the use of promethazine HCl.

Administration of promethazine has been associated with reported cholestatic jaundice.


What might happen if I take too much Promethazine DM?

Dextromethorphan may produce central excitement and mental confusion. Very high doses may produce respiratory depression. One case of toxic psychosis (hyperactivity, marked visual and auditory hallucinations) after ingestion of a single dose of 20 tablets (300 mg) of dextromethorphan has been reported.

Signs and symptoms of overdosage with promethazine HCl range from mild depression of the central nervous system and cardiovascular system to profound hypotension, respiratory depression, unconsciousness, and sudden death. Other reported reactions include hyperreflexia, hypertonia, ataxia, athetosis, and extensor-plantar reflexes (Babinski reflex).

Stimulation may be evident, especially in children and geriatric patients. Convulsions may rarely occur. A paradoxical reaction has been reported in children receiving single doses of 75 mg to 125 mg orally, characterized by hyperexcitability and nightmares.

Atropine-like signs and symptoms – dry mouth, fixed dilated pupils, flushing, as well as gastrointestinal symptoms, may occur.

The treatment of overdosage with promethazine and dextromethorphan is essentially symptomatic and supportive. Only in cases of extreme overdosage or individual sensitivity do vital signs including respiration, pulse, blood pressure, temperature, and EKG need to be monitored. Activated charcoal orally or by lavage may be given, or sodium or magnesium sulfate orally as a cathartic. Attention should be given to the re-establishment of adequate respiratory exchange through provision of a patent airway and institution of assisted or controlled ventilation. Diazepam may be used to control convulsions. Acidosis and electrolyte losses should be corrected. The antidotal efficacy of narcotic antagonists to dextromethorphan has not been established; note that any of the depressant effects of promethazine are not reversed by naloxone. Avoid analeptics, which may cause convulsions.

Severe hypotension usually responds to the administration of norepinephrine or phenylephrine. since its use in a patient with partial adrenergic blockage may further lower the blood pressure.

Limited experience with dialysis indicates that it is not helpful.


How should I store and handle Promethazine DM?

Store at controlled room temperature 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [see USP] .This preparation is a clear syrup with yellow color and pineapple menthol odor, containing promethazine hydrochloride 6.25 mg/5 mL, dextromethorphan hydrobromide 15 mg/5 mL and alcohol 7 percent, and is available in 4 fluid ounce (118 mL), 8 fluid ounce (237 mL) and one pint (473 mL).Keep tightly closed. Protect from light.Store at 20°-25°C (68°-77°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container with a child-resistant closure as defined in the USP.Manufactured for: Huntsville, AL 358118181650R12/07-R1This preparation is a clear syrup with yellow color and pineapple menthol odor, containing promethazine hydrochloride 6.25 mg/5 mL, dextromethorphan hydrobromide 15 mg/5 mL and alcohol 7 percent, and is available in 4 fluid ounce (118 mL), 8 fluid ounce (237 mL) and one pint (473 mL).Keep tightly closed. Protect from light.Store at 20°-25°C (68°-77°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container with a child-resistant closure as defined in the USP.Manufactured for: Huntsville, AL 358118181650R12/07-R1This preparation is a clear syrup with yellow color and pineapple menthol odor, containing promethazine hydrochloride 6.25 mg/5 mL, dextromethorphan hydrobromide 15 mg/5 mL and alcohol 7 percent, and is available in 4 fluid ounce (118 mL), 8 fluid ounce (237 mL) and one pint (473 mL).Keep tightly closed. Protect from light.Store at 20°-25°C (68°-77°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container with a child-resistant closure as defined in the USP.Manufactured for: Huntsville, AL 358118181650R12/07-R1This preparation is a clear syrup with yellow color and pineapple menthol odor, containing promethazine hydrochloride 6.25 mg/5 mL, dextromethorphan hydrobromide 15 mg/5 mL and alcohol 7 percent, and is available in 4 fluid ounce (118 mL), 8 fluid ounce (237 mL) and one pint (473 mL).Keep tightly closed. Protect from light.Store at 20°-25°C (68°-77°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container with a child-resistant closure as defined in the USP.Manufactured for: Huntsville, AL 358118181650R12/07-R1This preparation is a clear syrup with yellow color and pineapple menthol odor, containing promethazine hydrochloride 6.25 mg/5 mL, dextromethorphan hydrobromide 15 mg/5 mL and alcohol 7 percent, and is available in 4 fluid ounce (118 mL), 8 fluid ounce (237 mL) and one pint (473 mL).Keep tightly closed. Protect from light.Store at 20°-25°C (68°-77°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container with a child-resistant closure as defined in the USP.Manufactured for: Huntsville, AL 358118181650R12/07-R1This preparation is a clear syrup with yellow color and pineapple menthol odor, containing promethazine hydrochloride 6.25 mg/5 mL, dextromethorphan hydrobromide 15 mg/5 mL and alcohol 7 percent, and is available in 4 fluid ounce (118 mL), 8 fluid ounce (237 mL) and one pint (473 mL).Keep tightly closed. Protect from light.Store at 20°-25°C (68°-77°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container with a child-resistant closure as defined in the USP.Manufactured for: Huntsville, AL 358118181650R12/07-R1


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Clinical Information

Chemical Structure

No Image found
Clinical Pharmacology

Dextromethorphan is an antitussive agent and, unlike the isomeric levorphanol, it has no analgesic or addictive properties.

The drug acts centrally and elevates the threshold for coughing. It is about equal to codeine in depressing the cough reflex. In therapeutic dosage dextromethorphan does not inhibit ciliary activity.

Dextromethorphan is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and exerts its effect in 15 to 30 minutes. The duration of action after oral administration is approximately three to six hours. Dextromethorphan is metabolized primarily by liver enzymes undergoing O-demethylation, N-demethylation, and partial conjugation with glucuronic acid and sulfate. In humans, (+)-3-hydroxy-N-methyl-morphinan, (+)-3-hydroxymorphinan, and traces of unmetabolized drug were found in urine after oral administration.

Promethazine is a phenothiazine derivative which differs structurally from the antipsychotic phenothiazines by the presence of a branched side chain and no ring substitution. It is thought that this configuration is responsible for its relative lack (1/10 that of chlorpromazine) of dopamine antagonist properties.

Promethazine is an H receptor blocking agent. In addition to its antihistaminic action, it provides clinically useful sedative and antiemetic effects.

Promethazine is well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Clinical effects are apparent within 20 minutes after oral administration and generally last four to six hours, although they may persist as long as 12 hours. Promethazine is metabolized by the liver to a variety of compounds; the sulfoxides of promethazine and N-demethylpromethazine are the predominant metabolites appearing in the urine.

Non-Clinical Toxicology
Dextromethorphan should not be used in patients receiving a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) (see ).

Promethazine is contraindicated in comatose states, and in individuals known to be hypersensitive or to have had an idiosyncratic reaction to promethazine or to other phenothiazines.

Antihistamines are contraindicated for use in the treatment of lower respiratory tract symptoms, including asthma.

WARNINGS

Administration of dextromethorphan may be accompanied by histamine release and should be used with caution in atopic children.

Promethazine may impair the mental and/or physical abilities required for the performance of potentially hazardous tasks, such as driving a vehicle or operating machinery. The impairment may be amplified by concomitant use of other central nervous system depressants such as alcohol, sedatives/hypnotics (including barbiturates), narcotics, narcotic analgesics, general anesthetics, tricyclic antidepressants, and tranquilizers; therefore, such agents should either be eliminated or given in reduced dosage in the presence of promethazine HCl (see and ).

Promethazine may lead to potentially fatal respiratory depression.

Use of promethazine in patients with compromised respiratory function (e.g., COPD, sleep apnea) should be avoided.

Promethazine may lower seizure threshold. It should be used with caution in persons with seizure disorders or in persons who are using concomitant medications, such as narcotics or local anesthetics, which may also affect seizure threshold.

Promethazine should be used with caution in patients with bone marrow depression. Leukopenia and agranulocytosis have been reported, usually when promethazine HCl has been used in association with other known marrow toxic agents.

A potentially fatal symptom complex sometimes referred to as Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS) has been reported in association with promethazine HCl alone or in combination with antipsychotic drugs. Clinical manifestations of NMS are hyperpyrexia, muscle rigidity, altered mental status and evidence of autonomic instability (irregular pulse or blood pressure, tachycardia, diaphoresis and cardiac dysrhythmias).

The diagnostic evaluation of patients with this syndrome is complicated. In arriving at a diagnosis, it is important to identify cases where the clinical presentation includes both serious medical illness (e.g., pneumonia, systemic infection, etc.) and untreated or inadequately treated extrapyramidal signs and symptoms (EPS). Other important considerations in the differential diagnosis include central anticholinergic toxicity, heat stroke, drug fever and primary central nervous system (CNS) pathology.

The management of NMS should include 1) immediate discontinuation of promethazine HCl, antipsychotic drugs, if any, and other drugs not essential to concurrent therapy, 2) intensive symptomatic treatment and medical monitoring, and 3) treatment of any concomitant serious medical problems for which specific treatments are available. There is no general agreement about specific pharmacological treatment regimens for uncomplicated NMS.

Since recurrences of NMS have been reported with phenothiazines, the reintroduction of promethazine HCl should be carefully considered.

PROMETHAZINE PRODUCTS ARE CONTRAINDICATED FOR USE IN PEDIATRIC PATIENTS LESS THAN TWO YEARS OF AGE.

CAUTION SHOULD BE EXERCISED WHEN ADMINISTERING PROMETHAZINE PRODUCTS TO PEDIATRIC PATIENTS 2 YEARS OF AGE AND OLDER BECAUSE OF THE POTENTIAL FOR FATAL RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION. RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION AND APNEA, SOMETIMES ASSOCIATED WITH DEATH, ARE STRONGLY ASSOCIATED WITH PROMETHAZINE PRODUCTS AND ARE NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO INDIVIDUALIZED WEIGHT-BASED DOSING, WHICH MIGHT OTHERWISE PERMIT SAFE ADMINISTRATION. CONCOMITANT ADMINISTRATION OF PROMETHAZINE PRODUCTS WITH OTHER RESPIRATORY DEPRESSANTS HAS AN ASSOCIATION WITH RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION, AND SOMETIMES DEATH, IN PEDIATRIC PATIENTS.

ANTIEMETICS ARE NOT RECOMMENDED FOR TREATMENT OF UNCOMPLICATED VOMITING IN PEDIATRIC PATIENTS, AND THEIR USE SHOULD BE LIMITED TO PROLONGED VOMITING OF KNOWN ETIOLOGY. THE EXTRAPYRAMIDAL SYMPTOMS WHICH CAN OCCUR SECONDARY TO PROMETHAZINE HYDROCHLORIDE ADMINISTRATION MAY BE CONFUSED WITH THE CNS SIGNS OF UNDIAGNOSED PRIMARY DISEASE, e.g., ENCEPHALOPATHY OR REYE'S SYNDROME. THE USE OF PROMETHAZINE PRODUCTS SHOULD BE AVOIDED IN PEDIATRIC PATIENTS WHOSE SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS MAY SUGGEST REYE'S SYNDROME OR OTHER HEPATIC DISEASES.

Excessively large dosages of antihistamines, including promethazine hydrochloride, in pediatric patients may cause sudden death (see ). Hallucinations and convulsions have occurred with therapeutic doses and overdoses of promethazine hydrochloride in pediatric patients. In pediatric patients who are acutely ill associated with dehydration, there is an increased susceptibility to dystonias with the use of promethazine HCl.

Administration of promethazine has been associated with reported cholestatic jaundice.

Combined use of haloperidol and lithium. An encephalopathic syndrome (characterized by weakness, lethargy, fever, tremulousness and confusion, extrapyramidal symptoms, leukocytosis, elevated serum enzymes, BUN and FBS) followed by irreversible brain damage has occurred in a few patients treated with lithium plus haloperidol. A causal relationship between these events and the concomitant administration of lithium and haloperidol has not been established; however, patients receiving such combined therapy should be monitored closely for early evidence of neurological toxicity and treatment discontinued promptly if such signs appear.

The possibility of similar adverse interactions with other antipsychotic medication exists.

Lithium may prolong the effects of neuromuscular blocking agents. Therefore, neuromuscular blocking agents should be given with caution to patients receiving lithium.

Caution should be used when lithium and diuretics or angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are used concomitantly because sodium loss may reduce the renal clearance of lithium and increase serum lithium levels with risk of lithium toxicity. When such combinations are used, the lithium dosage may need to be decreased, and more frequent monitoring of lithium plasma levels is recommended.

Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDS): Lithium levels should be closely monitored when patients initiate or discontinue NSAID use. In some cases, lithium toxicity has resulted from interactions between an NSAID and lithium. Indomethacin and piroxicam have been reported to increase significantly steady-state plasma lithium concentrations. There is also evidence that other nonsteriodal anti-inflammatory agents, including the selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors, have the same effect. In a study conducted in healthy subjects, mean steady-state lithium plasma levels increased approximately 17% in subjects receiving lithium 450 mg BID with celecoxib 200 mg BID as compared to subjects receiving lithium alone.

Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with the drug combination–promethazine and dextromethorphan. It is not known whether this drug combination can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman or can affect reproduction capacity. Promethazine and dextromethorphan should be given to a pregnant woman only if clearly needed.

Dextromethorphan should be used with caution in sedated patients, in the debilitated, and in patients confined to the supine position.

Drugs having anticholinergic properties should be used with caution in patients with narrow-angle glaucoma, prostatic hypertrophy, stenosing peptic ulcer, pyloroduodenal obstruction, and bladder-neck obstruction.

Promethazine should be used cautiously in persons with cardiovascular disease or with impairment of liver function.

Dextromethorphan:

Dextromethorphan hydrobromide occasionally causes slight drowsiness, dizziness, and gastrointestinal disturbances.

Promethazine:

Central Nervous System – Drowsiness is the most prominent CNS effect of this drug. Sedation, somnolence, blurred vision, dizziness; confusion, disorientation, and extrapyramidal symptoms such as oculogyric crisis, torticollis, and tongue protrusion; lassitude, tinnitus, incoordination, fatigue, euphoria, nervousness, diplopia, insomnia, tremors, convulsive seizures, excitation, catatonic-like states, hysteria. Hallucinations have also been reported.

Cardiovascular – Increased or decreased blood pressure, tachycardia, bradycardia, faintness.

Dermatologic – Dermatitis, photosensitivity, urticaria.

Hematologic – Leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, thrombocytopenic purpura, agranulocytosis.

Gastrointestinal – Dry mouth, nausea, vomiting, jaundice.

Respiratory – Asthma, nasal stuffiness, respiratory depression (potentially fatal) and apnea (potentially fatal). (See .)

Other – Angioneurotic edema. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (potentially fatal) has also been reported. (See .)

Paradoxical Reactions – Hyperexcitability and abnormal movements have been reported in patients following a single administration of promethazine HCl. Consideration should be given to the discontinuation of promethazine HCl and to the use of other drugs if these reactions occur. Respiratory depression, nightmares, delirium, and agitated behavior have also been reported in some of these patients.

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Reference

This information is obtained from the National Institute of Health's Standard Packaging Label drug database.
"https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/"

While we update our database periodically, we cannot guarantee it is always updated to the latest version.

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Professional

Clonazepam Description Each single-scored tablet, for oral administration, contains 0.5 mg, 1 mg, or 2 mg Clonazepam, USP, a benzodiazepine. Each tablet also contains corn starch, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and povidone. Clonazepam tablets USP 0.5 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake. Clonazepam tablets USP 1 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake, as well as FD&C Blue No. 1 Aluminum Lake. Chemically, Clonazepam, USP is 5-(o-chlorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-7-nitro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one. It is a light yellow crystalline powder. It has the following structural formula: C15H10ClN3O3 M.W. 315.72
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Interactions

Interactions

A total of 440 drugs (1549 brand and generic names) are known to interact with Imbruvica (ibrutinib). 228 major drug interactions (854 brand and generic names) 210 moderate drug interactions (691 brand and generic names) 2 minor drug interactions (4 brand and generic names) Show all medications in the database that may interact with Imbruvica (ibrutinib).