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Promethazine Hydrochloride

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Overview

What is PROMETHAZINE?

Each rectal suppository of Promethazine contains 12.5 mg or 25 mg promethazine HCl with ascorbyl palmitate, colloidal silicon dioxide, white wax, hard fat, and glyceryl monostearate. Promethazine Suppositories are for rectal administration only.

Promethazine HCl is a racemic compound; the empirical formula is C H N S•HCl and its molecular weight is 320.88.

Promethazine HCl, a phenothiazine derivative, is designated chemically as 10 -Phenothiazine, 10-ethanamine, α-trimethyl-, monohydrochloride, (±)- with the following structural formula:

Promethazine HCl occurs as a white to faint yellow, practically odorless, crystalline powder, which slowly oxidizes and turns blue on prolonged exposure to air. It is soluble in water and freely soluble in alcohol.



What does PROMETHAZINE look like?



What are the available doses of PROMETHAZINE?

Sorry No records found.

What should I talk to my health care provider before I take PROMETHAZINE?

Sorry No records found

How should I use PROMETHAZINE?

Promethazine is useful for: 

Perennial and seasonal allergic rhinitis. Vasomotor rhinitis. Allergic conjunctivitis due to inhalant allergens and foods. Mild, uncomplicated allergic skin manifestations of urticaria and angioedema. Amelioration of allergic reactions to blood or plasma. Dermographism. Anaphylactic reactions, as adjunctive therapy to epinephrine and other standard measures, after the acute manifestations have been controlled. Preoperative, postoperative, or obstetric sedation. Prevention and control of nausea and vomiting associated with certain types of anesthesia and surgery. Therapy adjunctive to meperidine or other analgesics for control of postoperative pain. Sedation in both children and adults, as well as relief of apprehension and production of light sleep from which the patient can be easily aroused. Active and prophylactic treatment of motion sickness. Antiemetic therapy in postoperative patients.

Promethazine HCl Rectal Suppositories, USP are contraindicated for children under 2 years of age (see   

and ).

Promethazine Suppositories are for rectal administration only.


What interacts with PROMETHAZINE?

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What are the warnings of PROMETHAZINE?

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WARNING:

    PROMETHAZINE HCL SUPPOSITORIES, USP SHOULD NOT BE USED IN PEDIATRIC PATIENTS LESS THAN 2 YEARS OF AGE BECAUSE OF THE POTENTIAL FOR FATAL RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION.

    POSTMARKETING CASES OF RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION, INCLUDING FATALITIES, HAVE BEEN REPORTED WITH USE OF PROMETHAZINE HCL SUPPOSITORIES, USP IN PEDIATRIC PATIENTS LESS THAN 2 YEARS OF AGE. A WIDE RANGE OF WEIGHT-BASED DOSES OF PROMETHAZINE HCL SUPPOSITORIES HAVE RESULTED IN RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION IN THESE PATIENTS.

   CAUTION SHOULD BE EXERCISED WHEN ADMINISTERING PROMETHAZINE HCL TO PEDIATRIC PATIENTS 2 YEARS OF AGE AND OLDER. IT IS RECOMMENDED THAT THE LOWEST EFFECTIVE DOSE OF PROMETHAZINE HCL BE USED IN PEDIATRIC PATIENTS 2 YEARS OF AGE AND OLDER AND CONCOMITANT ADMINISTRATION OF OTHER DRUGS WITH RESPIRATORY DEPRESSANT EFFECTS BE AVOIDED.

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CNS Depression

Promethazine Suppositories may impair the mental and/or physical abilities required for the performance of potentially hazardous tasks, such as driving a vehicle or operating machinery. The impairment may be amplified by concomitant use of other central-nervous-system depressants such as alcohol, sedatives/ hypnotics (including barbiturates), narcotics, narcotic analgesics, general anesthetics, tricyclic antidepressants, and tranquilizers; therefore, such agents should either be eliminated or given in reduced dosage in the presence of promethazine HCl (see  ).

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Respiratory Depression

Promethazine Suppositories may lead to potentially fatal respiratory depression.

Use of Promethaine Suppositories in patients with compromised respiratory function (e.g., COPD, sleep apnea) should be avoided.

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Lower Seizure Threshold

Promethazine Suppositories may lower seizure threshold. It should be used with caution in persons with seizure disorders or in persons who are using concomitant medications, such as narcotics or local anesthetics, which may also affect seizure threshold.

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Bone-Marrow Depression

Promethazine Suppositories should be used with caution in patients with bone-marrow depression. Leukopenia and agranulocytosis have been reported, usually when promethazine HCl has been used in association with other known marrow-toxic agents.

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Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome

A potentially fatal symptom complex sometimes referred to as Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS) has been reported in association with promethazine HCl alone or in combination with antipsychotic drugs. Clinical manifestations of NMS are hyperpyrexia, muscle rigidity, altered mental status and evidence of autonomic instability (irregular pulse or blood pressure, tachycardia, diaphoresis and cardiac dysrhythmias).

The diagnostic evaluation of patients with this syndrome is complicated. In arriving at a diagnosis, it is important to identify cases where the clinical presentation includes both serious medical illnesses (e.g., pneumonia, systemic infection, etc.) and untreated or inadequately treated extrapyramidal signs and symptoms (EPS). Other important considerations in the differential diagnosis include central anticholinergic toxicity, heat stroke, drug fever and primary central nervous system (CNS) pathology.

The management of NMS should include 1) immediate discontinuation of promethazine HCl, antipsychotic drugs, if any, and other drugs not essential to concurrent therapy, 2) intensive symptomatic treatment and medical monitoring, and 3) treatment of any concomitant serious medical problems for which specific treatments are available. There is no general agreement about specific pharmacological treatment regimens for uncomplicated NMS.

Since recurrences of NMS have been reported with phenothiazines, the reintroduction of promethazine HCl should be carefully considered.

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Use in Pediatric Patients

PROMETHAZINE HCL SUPPOSITORIES, USP ARE CONTRAINDICATED FOR THE USE IN PEDIATRIC PATIENTS LESS THAN TWO YEARS OF AGE.

CAUTION SHOULD BE EXERCISED WHEN ADMINISTERING PROMETHAZINE HCL SUPPOSITORIES, USP TO PEDIATRIC PATIENTS 2 YEARS OF AGE AND OLDER BECAUSE OF THE POTENTIAL FOR FATAL RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION. RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION AND APNEA, SOMETIMES ASSOCIATED WITH DEATH, ARE STRONGLY ASSOCIATED WITH PROMETHAZINE PRODUCTS AND ARE NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO INDIVIDUALIZED WEIGHT-BASED DOSING, WHICH MIGHT OTHERWISE PERMIT SAFE ADMINISTRATION. CONCOMITANT ADMINISTRATION OF

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ANTIEMETICS ARE NOT RECOMMENDED FOR TREATMENT OF UNCOMPLICATED VOMITING IN PEDIATRIC PATIENTS, AND THEIR USE SHOULD BE LIMITED TO PROLONGED VOMITING OF KNOWN ETIOLOGY. THE EXTRAPYRAMIDAL SYMPTOMS WHICH CAN OCCUR SECONDARY TO PROMETHAZINE HCL SUPPOSITORIES, USP ADMINISTRATION MAY BE CONFUSED WITH THE CNS SIGNS OF UNDIAGNOSED PRIMARY DISEASE, E.G., ENCEPHALOPATHY OR REYE’S SYNDROME. THE USE OF PROMETHAZINE HCL SUPPOSITORIES, USP SHOULD BE AVOIDED IN PEDIATRIC

PATIENTS WHOSE SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS MAY SUGGEST REYE’S SYNDROME OR OTHER HEPATIC DISEASES.

Excessively large dosages of antihistamines, including Promethazine Suppositories, in pediatric patients may cause sudden death  (see ). Hallucinations and convulsions have occurred with therapeutic doses and overdoses of promethazine HCl in pediatric patients. In pediatric patients who are acutely ill associated with dehydration, there is an increased susceptibility to dystonias with the use of promethazine HCl.

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Other Considerations

Administration of promethazine HCl has been associated with reported cholestatic jaundice.


What are the precautions of PROMETHAZINE?

Sorry No Records found


What are the side effects of PROMETHAZINE?

Sorry No records found


What should I look out for while using PROMETHAZINE?

Promethazine is contraindicated for use in pediatric patients less than two years of age. 

Promthazine is contraindicated in comatose states, and in individuals known to be hypersensitive or to have had an idiosyncratic reaction to promethazine or to other phenothiazines. 

Antihistamines are contraindicated for use in the treatment of lower respiratory tract symptoms including asthma.


What might happen if I take too much PROMETHAZINE?

Signs and symptoms of overdosage with promethazine HCl range from mild depression of the central nervous system and cardiovascular system to profound hypotension, respiratory depression, and unconsciousness, and sudden death. Other reported reactions include hyperreflexia, hypertonia, ataxia, athetosis, and extensor-plantar reflexes (Babinski reflex). 

Stimulation may be evident, especially in children and geriatric patients. Convulsions may rarely occur. A paradoxical-type reaction has been reported in children receiving single doses of 75 mg to 125 mg orally, characterized by hyperexcitability and nightmares. 

Atropine-like signs and symptoms-dry mouth, fixed, dilated pupils, flushing, as well as gastrointestinal symptoms-may occur.


How should I store and handle PROMETHAZINE?

StorageStore in a well-closed container at 20° - 25°C (68° - 77°F); excursions permitted to 15° - 30°C (59° - 86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].StorageStore in a well-closed container at 20° - 25°C (68° - 77°F); excursions permitted to 15° - 30°C (59° - 86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Promethazine HCl Rectal Suppositories are available as follows: Bottle of 2 suppositories.   25 mg, white, bullet-shaped suppository wrapped in silver foil.            Store refrigerated between 2°-8°C (36°-46°F). Dispense in well-closed container. Promethazine HCl Rectal Suppositories are available as follows: Bottle of 2 suppositories.   25 mg, white, bullet-shaped suppository wrapped in silver foil.            Store refrigerated between 2°-8°C (36°-46°F). Dispense in well-closed container. Promethazine HCl Rectal Suppositories are available as follows: Bottle of 2 suppositories.   25 mg, white, bullet-shaped suppository wrapped in silver foil.            Store refrigerated between 2°-8°C (36°-46°F). Dispense in well-closed container. Promethazine HCl Rectal Suppositories are available as follows: Bottle of 2 suppositories.   25 mg, white, bullet-shaped suppository wrapped in silver foil.            Store refrigerated between 2°-8°C (36°-46°F). Dispense in well-closed container. Promethazine HCl Rectal Suppositories are available as follows: Bottle of 2 suppositories.   25 mg, white, bullet-shaped suppository wrapped in silver foil.            Store refrigerated between 2°-8°C (36°-46°F). Dispense in well-closed container.


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Clinical Information

Chemical Structure

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Clinical Pharmacology

Promethazine is a phenothiazine derivative, which differs structurally from the antipsychotic phenothiazines by the presence of a branched side chain and no ring substitution. It is thought that this configuration is responsible for its relative lack (1/10 that of chlorpromazine) of dopamine antagonist properties. 

Promethazine is an H receptor blocking agent. In addition to its antihistaminic action, it provides clinically useful sedative and antiemetic effects. 

Promethazine is metabolized by the liver to a variety of compounds; the sulfoxides of promethazine and N-demethylpromethazine are the predominant metabolites appearing in the urine.

Non-Clinical Toxicology
Promethazine is contraindicated for use in pediatric patients less than two years of age. 

Promthazine is contraindicated in comatose states, and in individuals known to be hypersensitive or to have had an idiosyncratic reaction to promethazine or to other phenothiazines. 

Antihistamines are contraindicated for use in the treatment of lower respiratory tract symptoms including asthma.

Drugs having anticholinergic properties should be used with caution in patients with narrow-angle glaucoma, prostatic hypertrophy, stenosing peptic ulcer, pyloroduodenal obstruction, and bladder-neck obstruction.

Promethazine Suppositories should be used cautiously in persons with cardiovascular disease or with impairment of liver function.

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Reference

This information is obtained from the National Institute of Health's Standard Packaging Label drug database.
"https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/"

While we update our database periodically, we cannot guarantee it is always updated to the latest version.

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Professional

Clonazepam Description Each single-scored tablet, for oral administration, contains 0.5 mg, 1 mg, or 2 mg Clonazepam, USP, a benzodiazepine. Each tablet also contains corn starch, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and povidone. Clonazepam tablets USP 0.5 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake. Clonazepam tablets USP 1 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake, as well as FD&C Blue No. 1 Aluminum Lake. Chemically, Clonazepam, USP is 5-(o-chlorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-7-nitro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one. It is a light yellow crystalline powder. It has the following structural formula: C15H10ClN3O3 M.W. 315.72
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Tips

Tips

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Interactions

Interactions

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