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Salsalate

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Overview

What is Salsalate?

Salsalate, is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent for oral administration. Chemically, salsalate (salicylsalicylic acid or 2-hydroxy-benzoic acid, 2- carboxyphenyl ester) is a dimer of salicylic acid; its structural formula is shown below.

Each tablet, for oral administration contains 500 mg or 750 mg of salsalate, USP. In addition each tablet contains the following inactive ingredients: Microcrystalline Cellulose, Sodium Starch Glycolate, Povidone, and Stearic Acid. Also contains: Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose, Polydextrose, Titanium Dioxide, Triacetin, FD&C Blue No. 1 Aluminum Lake, FD&C Blue No. 2 Aluminum Lake and Polyethylene Glycol.



What does Salsalate look like?



What are the available doses of Salsalate?

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What should I talk to my health care provider before I take Salsalate?

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How should I use Salsalate?

Carefully consider the potential benefits and risks of Salsalate tablet, USP and other treatment options before deciding to use Salsalate tablet, USP. Use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration consistent with individual patient treatment goals (see ).

After observing the response to initial therapy with Salsalate tablet, USP, the dose and frequency should be adjusted to suit an individual patient's needs. Salsalate is indicated for relief of the signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis and related rheumatic disorder.

Adults:

Alleviation of symptoms is gradual, and full benefit may not be evident for 3 to 4 days, when plasma salicylate levels have achieved steady state. There is no evidence for development of tissue tolerance (tachyphylaxis), but salicylate therapy may induce increased activity of metabolizing liver enzymes, causing a greater rate of salicyluric acid production and excretion, with a resultant increase in dosage requirement for maintenance of therapeutic serum salicylate levels.

Children:


What interacts with Salsalate?

Salsalate tablet, USP is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to salsalate.


Salsalate tablet, USP should not be given to patients who have experienced asthma, urticaria, or allergic-type reactions after taking aspirin or other NSAIDs. Severe, rarely fatal, anaphylactic-like reactions to NSAIDs have been reported in such patients (see , and ).


Salsalate tablet, USP is contraindicated for the treatment of peri-operative pain in the setting of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery (see ).



What are the warnings of Salsalate?

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What are the precautions of Salsalate?

General

Patients on treatment with salsalate should be warned not to take other salicylates so as to avoid potentially toxic concentrations. Great care should be exercised when salsalate is prescribed in the presence of chronic renal insufficiency or peptic ulcer disease. Protein binding of salicylic acid can be influenced by nutritional status, competitive binding of other drugs, and fluctuations in serum proteins caused by disease (rheumatoid arthritis, etc.).

Although cross reactivity, including bronchospasm, has been reported occasionally with non-acetylated salicylates, including salsalate, in aspirin-sensitive patients salsalate is less likely than aspirin to induce asthma in such patients.

Salsalate tablet, USP cannot be expected to substitute for corticosteroids or to treat corticosteroid insufficiency. Abrupt discontinuation of corticosteroids may lead to disease exacerbation. Patients on prolonged corticosteroid therapy should have their therapy tapered slowly if a decision is made to discontinue corticosteroids.

The pharmacological activity of Salsalate tablet, USP in reducing [fever and] inflammation may diminish the utility of these diagnostic signs in detecting complications of presumed noninfectious, painful conditions.

Hepatic Effects

Borderline elevations of one or more liver tests may occur in up to 15% of patients taking NSAIDs including Salsalate tablet, USP. These laboratory abnormalities may progress, may remain unchanged, or may be transient with continuing therapy.

Notable elevations of ALT or AST (approximately three or more times the upper limit of normal) have been reported in approximately 1% of patients in clinical trials with NSAIDs. In addition, rare cases of severe hepatic reactions, including jaundice and fatal fulminant hepatitis, liver necrosis and hepatic failure, some of them with fatal outcomes have been reported.

A patient with symptoms and/or signs suggesting liver dysfunction, or in whom an abnormal liver test has occurred, should be evaluated for evidence of the development of a more severe hepatic reaction while on therapy with Salsalate tablet, USP. If clinical signs and symptoms consistent with liver disease develop, or if systemic manifestations occur (e.g., eosinophilia, rash, etc.), Salsalate tablet, USP should be discontinued.

Hematological Effects

Anemia is sometimes seen in patients receiving NSAIDs, including Salsalate tablet, USP. This may be due to fluid retention, occult or gross GI blood loss, or an incompletely described effect upon erythropoiesis. Patients on long-term treatment with NSAIDs, including Salsalate tablet, USP, should have their hemoglobin or hematocrit checked if they exhibit any signs or symptoms of anemia.

NSAIDs inhibit platelet aggregation and have been shown to prolong bleeding time in some patients. Unlike aspirin, their effect on platelet function is quantitatively less, of shorter duration, and reversible. Patients receiving Salsalate tablet, USP, who may be adversely affected by alterations in platelet function, such as those with coagulation disorders or patients receiving anticoagulants, should be carefully monitored.

Preexisting Asthma

Patients with asthma may have aspirin-sensitive asthma. The use of aspirin in patients with aspirin-sensitive asthma has been associated with severe bronchospasm which can be fatal. Since cross reactivity, including bronchospasm, between aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs has been reported in such aspirin-sensitive patients, Salsalate tablet, USP should not be administered to patients with this form of aspirin sensitivity and should be used with caution in patients with preexisting asthma.

INFORMATION FOR PATIENTS















                Patients should be informed of the following information before initiating therapy with an NSAID and periodically during the course of ongoing therapy. Patients should also be encouraged to read the NSAID Medication Guide that accompanies each prescription dispensed.

                LABORATORY TESTS

                Plasma salicylic acid concentrations should be periodically monitored during long-term treatment with salsalate to aid maintenance of therapeutically effective levels: 10 to 30 mg/100 ml. Toxic manifestations are not usually seen until plasma concentrations exceed 30 mg/100 ml (see ). Urinary pH should also be regularly monitored: sudden acidification, as from pH 6.5 to 5.5, can double the plasma level, resulting in toxicity.

                Because serious GI tract ulcerations and bleeding can occur without warning symptoms, physicians should monitor for signs or symptoms of GI bleeding. Patients on long-term treatment with NSAIDs, should have their CBC and a chemistry profile checked periodically. If clinical signs and symptoms consistent with liver or renal disease develop, systemic manifestations occur (e.g., eosinophilia, rash, etc.) or if abnormal liver tests persist or worsen, Salsalate tablet, USP should be discontinued.

                DRUG INTERACTIONS

                Reports suggest that NSAIDs may diminish the antihypertensive effect of ACE-inhibitors. This interaction should be given consideration in patients taking NSAIDs concomitantly with ACE-inhibitors.

                Salicylates antagonize the uricosuric action of drugs used to treat gout. ASPIRIN AND OTHER SALICYLATE DRUGS WILL BE ADDITIVE TO SALSALATE AND MAY INCREASE PLASMA CONCENTRATIONS OF SALICYLIC ACID TO TOXIC LEVELS. Drugs and foods that raise urine pH will increase renal clearance and urinary excretion of salicylic acid, thus lowering plasma levels: acidifying drugs or foods will decrease urinary excretion and increase plasma levels. Salicylates given concomitantly with anticoagulant drugs may predispose to systemic bleeding.

                Salicylates may enhance the hypoglycemic effect of oral antidiabetic drugs of the sulfonylurea class. Salicylate competes with a number of drugs for protein binding sites, notably penicillin, thiopental, thyroxine, triiodothyronine, phenytoin, sulfinpyrazone, naproxen, warfarin, methotrexate, and possibly corticosteroids.

                [When Salsalate tablet, USP is administered with aspirin, its protein binding is reduced, although the clearance of free Salsalate tablet, USP is not altered. The clinical significance of this interaction is not known; however,] as with other NSAIDs, concomitant administration of salsalate and aspirin is not generally recommended because of the potential of increased adverse effects.

                Clinical studies, as well as post marketing observations, have shown that Salsalate tablet, USP can reduce the natriuretic effect-of furosemide and thiazides in some patients. This response has been attributed to inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis. During concomitant therapy with NSAIDs, the patient should be observed closely for signs of renal failure (see ), as well as to assure diuretic efficacy.

                NSAIDs have produced an elevation of plasma lithium levels and a reduction in renal lithium clearance. The mean minimum lithium concentration increased 15% and the renal clearance was decreased by approximately 20%. These effects have been attributed to inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis by the NSAID. Thus, when NSAIDs and lithium are administered concurrently, subjects should be observed carefully for signs of lithium toxicity.

                NSAIDs have been reported to competitively inhibit methotrexate accumulation in rabbit kidney slices. This may indicate that they could enhance the toxicity of methotrexate. Caution should be used when NSAIDs are administered concomitantly with methotrexate.

                The effects of warfarin and NSAIDs on GI bleeding are synergistic, such that users of both drugs together have a risk of serious GI bleeding higher than users of either drug alone.

                Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions

                Salicylate competes with thyroid hormone for binding to plasma proteins, which may be reflected in a depressed plasma Tvalue in some patients; thyroid function and basal metabolism are unaffected.

                Carcinogenesis

                No long-term animal studies have been performed with salsalate to evaluate its carcinogenic potential.

                Pregnancy Catagory C

                Reproductive studies conducted in rats and rabbits have not demonstrated evidence of developmental abnormalities. However, animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women.

                Because of the known effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on the fetal cardiovascular system (closure of ductus arteriosus), use during pregnancy (particularly late pregnancy) should be avoided.

                Labor and Delivery

                There exist no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Although adverse effects on mother or infant have not been reported with salsalate use during labor, caution is advised when anti-inflammatory dosage is involved. However, other salicylates have been associated with prolonged gestation and labor, maternal and neonatal bleeding sequelae, potentiation of narcotic and barbiturate effects (respiratory or cardiac arrest in the mother), delivery problems and stillbirth.

                In rat studies with NSAIDs, as with other drugs known to inhibit prostaglandin synthesis, an increased incidence of dystocia, delayed parturition, and decreased pup survival occurred. The effects of Salsalate tablet, USP on labor and delivery in pregnant women are unknown.

                Nursing Mothers

                It is not known whether salsalate per se is excreted in human milk; salicylic acid, the primary metabolite of salsalate, has been shown to appear in human milk in concentrations approximating the maternal blood level. Thus, the infant of a mother on salsalate therapy might ingest in mother’s milk 30 to 80% as much salicylate per kg body weight as the mother is taking. Accordingly, caution should be exercised when salsalate is administered to a nursing woman.

                Pediatric Use

                Safety and effectiveness of salsalate use in children have not been established. (See section.)

                Geriatric Use

                As with any NSAIDs, caution should be exercised in treating the elderly (65 years and older).


                What are the side effects of Salsalate?

                In two well-controlled clinical trials, the following reversible adverse experiences characteristic of salicylates were most commonly reported with salsalate (n-280 pts; listed in descending order of frequency): tinnitus, nausea, hearing impairment, rash, and vertigo. These common symptoms of salicylates, i.e., tinnitus or reversible hearing impairment, are often used as a guide to therapy.

                Although cause-and-effect relationships have not been established, spontaneous reports over a ten-year period have included the following additional medically significant adverse experiences: abdominal pain, abnormal hepatic function, anaphylactic shock, angioedema, bronchospasm, decreased creatinine clearance, diarrhea, G.I. bleeding, hepatitis, hypotension, nephritis and urticaria.


                What should I look out for while using Salsalate?

                Cardiovascular Risk

                Gastrointestinal Risk


                What might happen if I take too much Salsalate?

                Death has followed ingestion of 10 to 30 g of salicylates in adults, but much larger amounts have been ingested without fatal outcome.


                How should I store and handle Salsalate?

                Store at 25° C (77° F); excursions permitted to 15° - 30° C (59° - 86° F). See USP Controlled Room Temperature. Protect from light and moisture.Salsalate Tablets, USP, 500 mg are circular, blue colored film coated tablet, scored, debossed "103/103" on one side, and "Caraco Logo" debossed on other side.Bottles of 100                              NDC 57664-103-08Bottles of 500                              NDC 57664-103-13Bottles of 1000                            NDC 57664-103-18Salsalate Tablets, USP, 750 mg are capsule shaped, blue colored film coated tablet, debossed "105" on one side, and "C/C" scored on other side.Bottles of 100                              NDC 57664-105-08Bottles of 500                              NDC 57664-105-13Bottles of 1000                            NDC 57664-105-18Store at controlled room temperature 15-30°C (59-86°F).Rx onlySalsalate Tablets, USP, 500 mg are circular, blue colored film coated tablet, scored, debossed "103/103" on one side, and "Caraco Logo" debossed on other side.Bottles of 100                              NDC 57664-103-08Bottles of 500                              NDC 57664-103-13Bottles of 1000                            NDC 57664-103-18Salsalate Tablets, USP, 750 mg are capsule shaped, blue colored film coated tablet, debossed "105" on one side, and "C/C" scored on other side.Bottles of 100                              NDC 57664-105-08Bottles of 500                              NDC 57664-105-13Bottles of 1000                            NDC 57664-105-18Store at controlled room temperature 15-30°C (59-86°F).Rx onlySalsalate Tablets, USP, 500 mg are circular, blue colored film coated tablet, scored, debossed "103/103" on one side, and "Caraco Logo" debossed on other side.Bottles of 100                              NDC 57664-103-08Bottles of 500                              NDC 57664-103-13Bottles of 1000                            NDC 57664-103-18Salsalate Tablets, USP, 750 mg are capsule shaped, blue colored film coated tablet, debossed "105" on one side, and "C/C" scored on other side.Bottles of 100                              NDC 57664-105-08Bottles of 500                              NDC 57664-105-13Bottles of 1000                            NDC 57664-105-18Store at controlled room temperature 15-30°C (59-86°F).Rx onlySalsalate Tablets, USP, 500 mg are circular, blue colored film coated tablet, scored, debossed "103/103" on one side, and "Caraco Logo" debossed on other side.Bottles of 100                              NDC 57664-103-08Bottles of 500                              NDC 57664-103-13Bottles of 1000                            NDC 57664-103-18Salsalate Tablets, USP, 750 mg are capsule shaped, blue colored film coated tablet, debossed "105" on one side, and "C/C" scored on other side.Bottles of 100                              NDC 57664-105-08Bottles of 500                              NDC 57664-105-13Bottles of 1000                            NDC 57664-105-18Store at controlled room temperature 15-30°C (59-86°F).Rx onlySalsalate Tablets, USP, 500 mg are circular, blue colored film coated tablet, scored, debossed "103/103" on one side, and "Caraco Logo" debossed on other side.Bottles of 100                              NDC 57664-103-08Bottles of 500                              NDC 57664-103-13Bottles of 1000                            NDC 57664-103-18Salsalate Tablets, USP, 750 mg are capsule shaped, blue colored film coated tablet, debossed "105" on one side, and "C/C" scored on other side.Bottles of 100                              NDC 57664-105-08Bottles of 500                              NDC 57664-105-13Bottles of 1000                            NDC 57664-105-18Store at controlled room temperature 15-30°C (59-86°F).Rx onlySalsalate Tablets, USP, 500 mg are circular, blue colored film coated tablet, scored, debossed "103/103" on one side, and "Caraco Logo" debossed on other side.Bottles of 100                              NDC 57664-103-08Bottles of 500                              NDC 57664-103-13Bottles of 1000                            NDC 57664-103-18Salsalate Tablets, USP, 750 mg are capsule shaped, blue colored film coated tablet, debossed "105" on one side, and "C/C" scored on other side.Bottles of 100                              NDC 57664-105-08Bottles of 500                              NDC 57664-105-13Bottles of 1000                            NDC 57664-105-18Store at controlled room temperature 15-30°C (59-86°F).Rx onlySalsalate Tablets, USP, 500 mg are circular, blue colored film coated tablet, scored, debossed "103/103" on one side, and "Caraco Logo" debossed on other side.Bottles of 100                              NDC 57664-103-08Bottles of 500                              NDC 57664-103-13Bottles of 1000                            NDC 57664-103-18Salsalate Tablets, USP, 750 mg are capsule shaped, blue colored film coated tablet, debossed "105" on one side, and "C/C" scored on other side.Bottles of 100                              NDC 57664-105-08Bottles of 500                              NDC 57664-105-13Bottles of 1000                            NDC 57664-105-18Store at controlled room temperature 15-30°C (59-86°F).Rx onlySalsalate Tablets, USP, 500 mg are circular, blue colored film coated tablet, scored, debossed "103/103" on one side, and "Caraco Logo" debossed on other side.Bottles of 100                              NDC 57664-103-08Bottles of 500                              NDC 57664-103-13Bottles of 1000                            NDC 57664-103-18Salsalate Tablets, USP, 750 mg are capsule shaped, blue colored film coated tablet, debossed "105" on one side, and "C/C" scored on other side.Bottles of 100                              NDC 57664-105-08Bottles of 500                              NDC 57664-105-13Bottles of 1000                            NDC 57664-105-18Store at controlled room temperature 15-30°C (59-86°F).Rx onlySalsalate Tablets, USP, 500 mg are circular, blue colored film coated tablet, scored, debossed "103/103" on one side, and "Caraco Logo" debossed on other side.Bottles of 100                              NDC 57664-103-08Bottles of 500                              NDC 57664-103-13Bottles of 1000                            NDC 57664-103-18Salsalate Tablets, USP, 750 mg are capsule shaped, blue colored film coated tablet, debossed "105" on one side, and "C/C" scored on other side.Bottles of 100                              NDC 57664-105-08Bottles of 500                              NDC 57664-105-13Bottles of 1000                            NDC 57664-105-18Store at controlled room temperature 15-30°C (59-86°F).Rx onlySalsalate Tablets, USP, 500 mg are circular, blue colored film coated tablet, scored, debossed "103/103" on one side, and "Caraco Logo" debossed on other side.Bottles of 100                              NDC 57664-103-08Bottles of 500                              NDC 57664-103-13Bottles of 1000                            NDC 57664-103-18Salsalate Tablets, USP, 750 mg are capsule shaped, blue colored film coated tablet, debossed "105" on one side, and "C/C" scored on other side.Bottles of 100                              NDC 57664-105-08Bottles of 500                              NDC 57664-105-13Bottles of 1000                            NDC 57664-105-18Store at controlled room temperature 15-30°C (59-86°F).Rx only


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                Clinical Information

                Chemical Structure

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                Clinical Pharmacology

                Non-Clinical Toxicology
                Cardiovascular Risk

                Gastrointestinal Risk

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                Reference

                This information is obtained from the National Institute of Health's Standard Packaging Label drug database.
                "https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/"

                While we update our database periodically, we cannot guarantee it is always updated to the latest version.

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                Professional

                Clonazepam Description Each single-scored tablet, for oral administration, contains 0.5 mg, 1 mg, or 2 mg Clonazepam, USP, a benzodiazepine. Each tablet also contains corn starch, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and povidone. Clonazepam tablets USP 0.5 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake. Clonazepam tablets USP 1 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake, as well as FD&C Blue No. 1 Aluminum Lake. Chemically, Clonazepam, USP is 5-(o-chlorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-7-nitro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one. It is a light yellow crystalline powder. It has the following structural formula: C15H10ClN3O3 M.W. 315.72
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                Interactions

                Interactions

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