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Septocaine and Epinephrine

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Overview

What is Septocaine and Epinephrine?

Septocaine® injection is a sterile, aqueous solution that contains articaine HCl 4% (40 mg/mL) and epinephrine bitartrate in an epinephrine 1:200,000 or epinephrine 1:100,000 strength. Articaine HCl is an amino amide local anesthetic, chemically designated as 4-methyl-3-[2-(propylamino)-propionamido]-2-thiophene-carboxylic acid, methyl ester hydrochloride and is a racemic mixture. Articaine HCl has a molecular weight of 320.84 and the following structural formula:

Articaine HCl has a partition coefficient in n-octanol/Soerensen buffer (pH 7.35) of 17 and a pKa of 7.8.

Epinephrine bitartrate, (-)-1-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-2-methylamino-ethanol (+) tartrate (1:1) salt, is a vasoconstrictor that is added to articaine HCl in a concentration of 1:200,000 or 1:100,000 (expressed as free base). It has a molecular weight of 333.3 and the following structural formula:

Septocaine® contains articaine HCl (40 mg/mL), epinephrine (1:200,000 or 1:100,000) (as epinephrine bitartrate), sodium chloride (1.6 mg/mL), and sodium metabisulfite (0.5 mg/mL). The product is formulated with a 15% overage of epinephrine. The pH is adjusted with sodium hydroxide.



What does Septocaine and Epinephrine look like?



What are the available doses of Septocaine and Epinephrine?

Injection (clear colorless solution), containing:

What should I talk to my health care provider before I take Septocaine and Epinephrine?

How should I use Septocaine and Epinephrine?

Septocaine®, an amide local anesthetic containing a vasoconstrictor, is indicated for local, infiltrative, or conductive anesthesia in both simple and complex dental procedures.

Table 1 (below) summarizes the recommended volumes and concentrations of Septocaine® for various types of anesthetic procedures. The dosages suggested in this table are for normal healthy adults, administered by submucosal infiltration or nerve block.

The recommended doses serve only as a guide to the amount of anesthetic required for most routine procedures. The actual volumes to be used depend on a number of factors such as type and extent of surgical procedure, depth of anesthesia, degree of muscular relaxation, and condition of the patient. In all cases, the smallest dose that will produce the desired result should be given.

The onset of anesthesia and the duration of anesthesia are proportional to the volume and concentration (i.e., total dose) of local anesthetic used. Caution should be exercised when employing large volumes because the incidence of side effects may be dose-related.

For most routine dental procedures, Septocaine® containing epinephrine 1:200,000 is preferred. However, when more pronounced hemostasis or improved visualization of the surgical field are required, Septocaine® containing epinephrine 1:100,000 may be used.


What interacts with Septocaine and Epinephrine?

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What are the warnings of Septocaine and Epinephrine?

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What are the precautions of Septocaine and Epinephrine?

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What are the side effects of Septocaine and Epinephrine?

Sorry No records found


What should I look out for while using Septocaine and Epinephrine?

Septocaine is contraindicated in patients who are hypersensitive to products containing sulfites. Products containing sulfites may cause allergic-type reactions including anaphylactic symptoms and life-threatening or less severe asthmatic episodes in certain susceptible people. Sulfite sensitivity is seen more frequently in asthmatic than in non-asthmatic people


What might happen if I take too much Septocaine and Epinephrine?

Acute emergencies from local anesthetics are generally related to high plasma levels encountered during therapeutic use of local anesthetics or to unintended subarachnoid injection of local anesthetic solution

The first consideration is prevention, best accomplished by careful and constant monitoring of cardiovascular and respiratory vital signs and the patient's state of consciousness after each local anesthetic injection. At the first sign of change, oxygen should be administered.

The first step in the management of convulsions, as well as hypo-ventilation, consists of immediate attention to the maintenance of a patent airway and assisted or controlled ventilation as needed. The adequacy of the circulation should be assessed. Should convulsions persist despite adequate respiratory support, treatment with appropriate anticonvulsant therapy is indicated. The practitioner should be familiar with the use of anticonvulsant drugs, prior to the use of local anesthetics. Supportive treatment of circulatory depression may require administration of intravenous fluids and, when appropriate, a vasopressor.

If not treated immediately, both convulsions and cardiovascular depression can result in hypoxia, acidosis, bradycardia, arrhythmias, and/or cardiac arrest. If cardiac arrest should occur, standard cardiopulmonary resuscitative measures should be instituted.

For additional information about overdose treatment, call a poison control center ().


How should I store and handle Septocaine and Epinephrine?

Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F). [See USP Controlled Room Temperature.] Manufactured and Distributed by: Carlsbad, CA 92008 Revised: 06/12 CTI-12 Rev. C Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F). [See USP Controlled Room Temperature.] Manufactured and Distributed by: Carlsbad, CA 92008 Revised: 06/12 CTI-12 Rev. C Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F). [See USP Controlled Room Temperature.] Manufactured and Distributed by: Carlsbad, CA 92008 Revised: 06/12 CTI-12 Rev. C Septocaine® (articaine HCl and epinephrine) Injection is available in 1.7 mL single use glass cartridges, packaged in boxes of 50 cartridges in the following two strengths:


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Clinical Information

Chemical Structure

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Clinical Pharmacology

Articaine HCl is an amide local anesthetic. Local anesthetics block the generation and conduction of nerve impulses, presumably by increasing the threshold for electrical excitation in the nerve, by slowing the propagation of the nerve impulse, and by reducing the rate of rise of the action potential. In general, the progression of anesthesia is related to the diameter, myelination, and conduction velocity of the affected nerve fibers. Epinephrine is a vasoconstrictor added to articaine HCl to slow absorption into the general circulation and thus prolong maintenance of an active tissue concentration.

Non-Clinical Toxicology
Septocaine is contraindicated in patients who are hypersensitive to products containing sulfites. Products containing sulfites may cause allergic-type reactions including anaphylactic symptoms and life-threatening or less severe asthmatic episodes in certain susceptible people. Sulfite sensitivity is seen more frequently in asthmatic than in non-asthmatic people

The pharmacokinetic interactions listed below are potentially clinically important. Mutual inhibition of metabolism occurs with concurrent use of cyclosporin and methylprednisolone; therefore, it is possible that adverse events associated with the individual use of either drug may be more apt to occur. Convulsions have been reported with concurrent use of methylprednisolone and cyclosporin. Drugs that induce hepatic enzymes such as phenobarbital, phenytoin and rifampin may increase the clearance of methylprednisolone and may require increases in methylprednisolone dose to achieve the desired response. Drugs such as troleandomycin and ketoconazole may inhibit the metabolism of methylprednisolone and thus decrease its clearance. Therefore, the dose of methylprednisolone should be titrated to avoid steroid toxicity.

Methylprednisolone may increase the clearance of chronic high dose aspirin. This could lead to decreased salicylate serum levels or increase the risk of salicylate toxicity when methylprednisolone is withdrawn. Aspirin should be used cautiously in conjunction with corticosteroids in patients suffering from hypoprothrombinemia.

The effect of methylprednisolone on oral anticoagulants is variable. There are reports of enhanced as well as diminished effects of anticoagulant when given concurrently with corticosteroids. Therefore, coagulation indices should be monitored to maintain the desired anticoagulant effect.

Accidental intravascular injection of Septocaine® may be associated with convulsions, followed by central nervous system or cardiorespiratory depression and coma, progressing ultimately to respiratory arrest. Dental practitioners who employ local anesthetic agents including Septocaine® should be well versed in diagnosis and management of emergencies that may arise from their use. Resuscitative equipment, oxygen, and other resuscitative drugs should be available for immediate use. To avoid intravascular injection, aspiration should be performed before Septocaine® is injected. The needle must be repositioned until no return of blood can be elicited by aspiration. Note, however, that the absence of blood in the syringe does not guarantee that intravascular injection has been avoided.

Small doses of local anesthetics injected in dental blocks may produce adverse reactions similar to systemic toxicity seen with unintentional intravascular injections of larger doses. Confusion, convulsions, respiratory depression or respiratory arrest, and cardiovascular stimulation or depression have been reported. These reactions may be due to intra-arterial injection of the local anesthetic with retrograde flow to the cerebral circulation. Patients receiving these blocks should be observed constantly. Resuscitative equipment and personnel for treating adverse reactions should be immediately available. Dosage recommendations should not be exceeded

Reactions to articaine are characteristic of those associated with other amide-type local anesthetics. Adverse reactions to this group of drugs may also result from excessive plasma levels (which may be due to overdosage, unintentional intravascular injection, or slow metabolic degradation), injection technique, volume of injection, or hypersensitivity or they may be idiosyncratic.

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Reference

This information is obtained from the National Institute of Health's Standard Packaging Label drug database.
"https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/"

While we update our database periodically, we cannot guarantee it is always updated to the latest version.

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Professional

Clonazepam Description Each single-scored tablet, for oral administration, contains 0.5 mg, 1 mg, or 2 mg Clonazepam, USP, a benzodiazepine. Each tablet also contains corn starch, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and povidone. Clonazepam tablets USP 0.5 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake. Clonazepam tablets USP 1 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake, as well as FD&C Blue No. 1 Aluminum Lake. Chemically, Clonazepam, USP is 5-(o-chlorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-7-nitro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one. It is a light yellow crystalline powder. It has the following structural formula: C15H10ClN3O3 M.W. 315.72
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Tips

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Interactions

Interactions

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