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Soltamox

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Overview

What is Soltamox?

SOLTAMOX® solution, a nonsteroidal antiestrogen, is for oral administration. Each 10 mL solution contains 20 mg tamoxifen, equivalent to 30.4 mg tamoxifen citrate USP and the following inactive ingredients: ethanol, glycerol, propylene glycol, sorbitol solution, licorice flavor, aniseed flavor, purified water.

The chemical name is (Z)2-[4-(1,2-diphenyl-l-butenyl) phenoxy]-N,N-dimethylethanamine 2- hydroxy -1,2,3- propanetricarboxylate (1:1). The empirical formula is CHNO, and the structural formula is:

Tamoxifen citrate has a molecular weight of 563.62, the pKa' is 8.85, the equilibrium solubility in water at 37°C is 0.5 mg/mL and in 0.02 N HCl at 37°C, it is 0.2 mg/mL.



What does Soltamox look like?



What are the available doses of Soltamox?

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What should I talk to my health care provider before I take Soltamox?

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How should I use Soltamox?

Tamoxifen citrate is effective in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer in women and men. In premenopausal women with metastatic breast cancer, tamoxifen citrate is an alternative to oophorectomy or ovarian irradiation. Available evidence indicates that patients whose tumors are estrogen receptor positive are more likely to benefit from tamoxifen citrate therapy.

For patients with breast cancer, the recommended daily dose is 20-40 mg. Dosages greater than 20 mg per day should be given in divided doses (morning and evening). A 20 mg dose of SOLTAMOX® is administered as 10 mL (equivalent to 2 teaspoons) of the oral solution.

In three single agent adjuvant studies in women, one 10 mg tamoxifen citrate tablet was administered two (ECOG and NATO) or three (Toronto) times a day for two years. In the NSABP B-14 adjuvant study in women with node-negative breast cancer, one 10 mg tamoxifen citrate tablet was given twice a day for at least 5 years. Results of the B-14 study suggest that continuation of therapy beyond five years does not provide additional benefit (see ). In the EBCTCG 1995 overview, the reduction in recurrence and mortality was greater in those studies that used tamoxifen for about 5 years than in those that used tamoxifen for a shorter period of therapy. There was no indication that doses greater than 20 mg per day were more effective. Current data from clinical trials support 5 years of adjuvant tamoxifen citrate therapy for patients with breast cancer.


What interacts with Soltamox?

Tamoxifen citrate is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to the drug or any of its ingredients.


Reduction in Breast Cancer Incidence in High Risk Women and Women with DCIS Tamoxifen is contraindicated in women who require concomitant coumarin-type anticoagulant therapy or in women with a history of deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolus.



What are the warnings of Soltamox?

Effects in Metastatic Breast Cancer Patients

As with other additive hormonal therapy (estrogens and androgens), hypercalcemia has been reported in some breast cancer patients with bone metastases within a few weeks of starting treatment with tamoxifen. If hypercalcemia does occur, appropriate measures should be taken and, if severe, tamoxifen should be discontinued.

Effects on the Uterus-Endometrial Cancer and Uterine Sarcoma

An increased incidence of uterine malignancies has been reported in association with tamoxifen treatment. The underlying mechanism is unknown, but may be related to the estrogen-like effect of tamoxifen. Most uterine malignancies seen in association with tamoxifen are classified as adenocarcinoma of the endometrium. However, rare uterine sarcomas, including malignant mixed mullerian tumors, have also been reported. Uterine sarcoma is generally associated with a higher FIGO stage (III/IV) at diagnosis, poorer prognosis, and shorter survival. Uterine sarcoma has been reported to occur more frequently among long-term users (• 2 years) of tamoxifen than non-users. Some of the uterine malignancies (endometrial carcinoma or uterine sarcoma) have been fatal.

In the NSABP P-1 trial, among participants randomized to tamoxifen there was a statistically significant increase in the incidence of endometrial cancer (33 cases of invasive endometrial cancer, compared to 14 cases among participants randomized to placebo (RR=2.48, 95% CI: 1.27-4.92). The 33 cases in participants receiving tamoxifen were FIGO Stage I, including 20 IA, 12 IB, and 1 IC endometrial adenocarcinomas. In participants randomized to placebo, 13 were FIGO Stage I (8 IA and 5 IB) and 1 was FIGO Stage IV. Five women on tamoxifen and 1 on placebo received postoperative radiation therapy in addition to surgery. This increase was primarily observed among women at least 50 years of age at the time of randomization (26 cases of invasive endometrial cancer, compared to 6 cases among participants randomized to placebo (RR=4.50, 95% CI: 1.78- 13.16). Among women " 49 years of age at the time of randomization there were 7 cases of invasive endometrial cancer, compared to 8 cases among participants randomized to placebo (RR=0.94, 95% CI: 0.28-2.89). If age at the time of diagnosis is considered, there were 4 cases of endometrial cancer among participants " 49 randomized to tamoxifen compared to 2 among participants randomized to placebo (RR=2.21, 95% CI: 0.4-12.0). For women • 50 at the time of diagnosis, there were 29 cases among participants randomized to tamoxifen compared to 12 among women on placebo (RR=2.5, 95% CI: 1.3-4.9). The risk ratios were similar in the two groups, although fewer events occurred in younger women. Most (29 of 33 cases in the tamoxifen group) endometrial cancers were diagnosed in symptomatic women, although 5 of 33 cases in the tamoxifen group occurred in asymptomatic women. Among women receiving tamoxifen the events appeared between 1 and 61 months (average=32 months) from the start of treatment.

In an updated review of long-term data (median length of total follow-up is 6.9 years, including blinded follow-up) on 8,306 women with an intact uterus at randomization in the NSABP P-1 risk reduction trial, the incidence of both adenocarcinomas and rare uterine sarcomas was increased in women taking tamoxifen. During blinded follow-up, there were 36 cases of FIGO Stage I endometrial adenocarcinoma (22 were FIGO Stage IA, 13 IB, and 1 IC) in women receiving tamoxifen and 15 cases in women receiving placebo [14 were FIGO Stage I (9 IA and 5 IB), and 1 case was FIGO Stage IV]. Of the patients receiving tamoxifen who developed endometrial cancer, one with Stage IA and 4 with Stage IB cancers received radiation therapy. In the placebo group, one patient with FIGO Stage IB cancer received radiation therapy and the patient with FIGO Stage IVB cancer received chemotherapy and hormonal therapy. During total follow-up, endometrial adenocarcinoma was reported in 53 women randomized to tamoxifen (30 cases of FIGO Stage IA, 20 were Stage IB, 1 was Stage IC, and 2 were Stage IIIC), and 17 women randomized to placebo (9 cases were FIGO Stage IA, 6 were Stage IB, 1 was Stage IIIC, and 1 was Stage IVB) (incidence per 1,000 women- years of 2.20 and 0.71, respectively). Some patients received post-operative radiation therapy in addition to surgery. Uterine sarcomas were reported in 4 women randomized to tamoxifen (1 was FIGO IA, 1 was FIGO IB, 1 was FIGO IIA, and 1 was FIGO IIIC) and one patient randomized to placebo (FIGO IA); incidence per 1,000 women-years of 0.17 and 0.04, respectively. Of the patients randomized to tamoxifen, the FIGO IA and IB cases were a MMMT and sarcoma, respectively; the FIGO II was a MMMT; and the FIGO III was a sarcoma; and the one patient randomized to placebo had a MMMT. A similar increased incidence in endometrial adenocarcinoma and uterine sarcoma was observed among women receiving tamoxifen in five other NSABP clinical trials.

Any patient receiving or who has previously received tamoxifen who reports abnormal vaginal bleeding should be promptly evaluated. Patients receiving or who have previously received tamoxifen should have annual gynecological examinations and they should promptly inform their physicians if they experience any abnormal gynecological symptoms, e.g., menstrual irregularities, abnormal vaginal bleeding, changes in vaginal discharge, or pelvic pain or pressure.

In the P-1 trial, endometrial sampling did not alter the endometrial cancer detection rate compared to women who did not undergo endometrial sampling (0.6% with sampling, 0.5% without sampling) for women with an intact uterus. There are no data to suggest that routine endometrial sampling in asymptomatic women taking tamoxifen to reduce the incidence of breast cancer would be beneficial.

Non-Malignant Effects on the Uterus

An increased incidence of endometrial changes including hyperplasia and polyps have been reported in association with tamoxifen treatment. The incidence and pattern of this increase suggest that the underlying mechanism is related to the estrogenic properties of tamoxifen.

There have been a few reports of endometriosis and uterine fibroids in women receiving tamoxifen. The underlying mechanism may be due to the partial estrogenic effect of tamoxifen. Ovarian cysts have also been observed in a small number of premenopausal patients with advanced breast cancer who have been treated with tamoxifen.

Tamoxifen has been reported to cause menstrual irregularity or amenorrhea.

Thromboembolic Effects of Tamoxifen

There is evidence of an increased incidence of thromboembolic events, including deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, during tamoxifen therapy. When tamoxifen is coadministered with chemotherapy, there may be a further increase in the incidence of thromboembolic effects. For treatment of breast cancer, the risks and benefits of tamoxifen should be carefully considered in women with a history of thromboembolic events. In a small substudy (N = 81) of the NSABP-1 trial, there appeared to be no benefit to screening women for Factor V Leiden and Prothrombin mutations G20210A as a means to identify those who may not be appropriate candidates for tamoxifen therapy.

Data from the NSABP P-1 trial show that participants receiving tamoxifen without a history of pulmonary emboli (PE) had a statistically significant increase in pulmonary emboli (18- tamoxifen, 6-placebo, RR=3.01, 95% CI: 1.15-9.27). Three of the pulmonary emboli, all in the tamoxifen arm, were fatal. Eighty-seven percent of the cases of pulmonary embolism occurred in women at least 50 years of age at randomization. Among women receiving tamoxifen, the events appeared between 2 and 60 months (average = 27 months) from the start of treatment.

In this same population, a non-statistically significant increase in deep vein thrombosis (DVT) was seen in the tamoxifen group (30-tamoxifen, 19-placebo; RR=1.59, 95% CI: 0.86-2.98). The same increase in relative risk was seen in women " 49 and in women • 50, although fewer events occurred in younger women. Women with thromboembolic events were at risk for a second related event (7 out of 25 women on placebo, 5 out of 48 women on tamoxifen) and were at risk for complications of the event and its treatment (0/25 on placebo, 4/48 on tamoxifen). Among women receiving tamoxifen, deep vein thrombosis events occurred between 2 and 57 months (average=19 months) from the start of treatment.

There was a non-statistically significant increase in stroke among patients randomized to tamoxifen (24-placebo; 34-tamoxifen; RR=1.42; 95% CI 0.82-2.51). Six of the 24 strokes in the placebo group were considered hemorrhagic in origin and 10 of the 34 strokes in the tamoxifen group were categorized as hemorrhagic. Seventeen of the 34 strokes in the tamoxifen group were considered occlusive and 7 were considered to be of unknown etiology. Fourteen of the 24 strokes on the placebo arm were reported to be occlusive and 4 of unknown etiology. Among these strokes 3 strokes in the placebo group and 4 strokes in the tamoxifen group were fatal. Eighty-eight percent of the strokes occurred in women at least 50 years of age at the time of randomization. Among women receiving tamoxifen, the events occurred between 1 and 63 months (average = 30 months) from the start of treatment.

Effects on the Liver: Liver Cancer

In the Swedish trial using adjuvant tamoxifen 40 mg/day for 2-5 years, 3 cases of liver cancer have been reported in the tamoxifen treated group vs. 1 case in the observation group (See ). In other clinical trials evaluating tamoxifen, no cases of liver cancer have been reported to date.

One case of liver cancer was reported in NSABP P-1 in a participant randomized to tamoxifen.

Effects on the Liver: Non-Malignant Effects

Tamoxifen has been associated with changes in liver enzyme levels, and on rare occasions, a spectrum of more severe liver abnormalities including fatty liver, cholestasis, hepatitis and hepatic necrosis. A few of these serious cases included fatalities. In most reported cases the relationship to tamoxifen is uncertain. However, some positive rechallenges and dechallenges have been reported.

In the NSABP P-1 trial, few grade 3-4 changes in liver function (SGOT, SGPT, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase) were observed (10 on placebo and 6 on tamoxifen). Serum lipids were not systematically collected.

Other Cancers

A number of second primary tumors, occurring at sites other than the endometrium, have been reported following the treatment of breast cancer with tamoxifen in clinical trials. Data from the NSABP B-14 and P-1 studies show no increase in other (non-uterine) cancers among patients receiving tamoxifen. Whether an increased risk for other (non -uterine) cancers is associated with tamoxifen is still uncertain and continues to be evaluated.

Effects on the Eye

Ocular disturbances, including corneal changes, decrement in color vision perception, retinal vein thrombosis, and retinopathy have been reported in patients receiving tamoxifen. An increased incidence of cataracts and the need for cataract surgery have been reported in patients receiving tamoxifen.

In the NSABP P-1 trial, an increased risk of borderline significance of developing cataracts among those women without cataracts at baseline (540 -tamoxifen; 483-placebo; RR=1.13, 95% CI: 1.00-1.28) was observed. Among these same women, tamoxifen was associated with an increased risk of having cataract surgery (101 -tamoxifen; 63-placebo; RR=1.62, 95% CI 1.18-2.22) (See in CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY). Among all women on the trial (with or without cataracts at baseline), tamoxifen was associated with an increased risk of having cataract surgery (201 - tamoxifen; 129-placebo; RR=1.58, 95% CI 1.26-1.97). Eye examinations were not required during the study. No other conclusions regarding non- cataract ophthalmic events can be made.

Pregnancy Category

Tamoxifen may cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Women should be advised not to become pregnant while taking tamoxifen 2 months of discontinuing tamoxifen and should use barrier or nonhormonal contraceptive measures if sexually active. Tamoxifen does not cause infertility, even in the presence of menstrual irregularity. Effects on reproductive functions are expected from the antiestrogenic properties of the drug. In reproductive studies in rats at dose levels equal to or below the human dose, nonteratogenic developmental skeletal changes were seen and were found reversible. In addition, in fertility studies in rats and in teratology studies in rabbits using doses at or below those used in humans, a lower incidence of embryo implantation and a higher incidence of fetal death or retarded in utero growth were observed, with slower learning behavior in some rat pups when compared to historical controls. Several pregnant marmosets were dosed with 10 mg/kg/day (about 2-fold the daily maximum recommended human dose on a mg/m basis) during organogenesis or in the last half of pregnancy. No deformations were seen and, although the dose was high enough to terminate pregnancy in some animals, those that did maintain pregnancy showed no evidence of teratogenic malformations.

In rodent models of fetal reproductive tract development, tamoxifen (at doses 0.002 to 2.4- fold the daily maximum recommended human dose on a mg/m basis) caused changes in both sexes that are similar to those caused by estradiol, ethynylestradiol and diethylstilbestrol. Although the clinical relevance of these changes is unknown, some of these changes, especially vaginal adenosis, are similar to those seen in young women who were exposed to diethylstilbestrol in utero and who have a 1 in 1,000 risk of developing clear-cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina or cervix. To date, in utero exposure to tamoxifen has not been shown to cause vaginal adenosis, or clear-cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina or cervix, in young women. However, only a small number of young women have been exposed to tamoxifen in utero, and a smaller number have been followed long enough (to age 15-20) to determine whether vaginal or cervical neoplasia could occur as a result of this exposure.

There are no adequate and well-controlled trials of tamoxifen in pregnant women. There have been a small number of reports of vaginal bleeding, spontaneous abortions, birth defects, and fetal deaths in pregnant women. If this drug is used during pregnancy, or the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, or within approximately two months after discontinuing therapy, the patient should be apprised of the potential risks to the fetus including the potential long-term risk of a DES-like syndrome.

Reduction in Breast Cancer Incidence in High Risk Women - Pregnancy Category D

For sexually active women of child-bearing potential, tamoxifen therapy should be initiated during menstruation. In women with menstrual irregularity, a negative ȕ -HCG immediately prior to the initiation of therapy is sufficient (See ).


What are the precautions of Soltamox?

General

Decreases in platelet counts, usually to 50,000-100,000/mm3, infrequently lower, have been occasionally reported in patients taking tamoxifen for breast cancer. In patients with significant thrombocytopenia, rare hemorrhagic episodes have occurred, but it is uncertain if these episodes are due to tamoxifen therapy. Leukopenia has been observed, sometimes in association with anemia and/or thrombocytopenia. There have been rare reports of neutropenia and pancytopenia in patients receiving tamoxifen; this can sometimes be severe.

In the NSABP P-1 trial, 6 women on tamoxifen and 2 on placebo experienced grade 3-4 drops in platelet count (" 50,000/mm).

Information for Patients

Patients should be instructed to read the Medication Guide supplied as required by law when tamoxifen citrate is dispensed. The complete text of the Medication Guide is reprinted at the end of this document.

Reduction in Invasive Breast Cancer and DCIS in Women with DCIS

Women with DCIS treated with lumpectomy and radiation therapy who are considering tamoxifen to reduce the incidence of a second breast cancer event should assess the risks and benefits of therapy, since treatment with tamoxifen decreased the incidence of invasive breast cancer, but has not been shown to affect survival (See in ).

Reduction in Breast Cancer Incidence in High Risk Women

Women who are at high risk for breast cancer can consider taking tamoxifen therapy to reduce the incidence of breast cancer. Whether the benefits of treatment are considered to outweigh the risks depends on a woman's personal health history and on how she weighs the benefits and risks. Tamoxifen therapy to reduce the incidence of breast cancer may therefore not be appropriate for all women at high risk for breast cancer. Women who are considering tamoxifen therapy should consult their health care professional for an assessment of the potential benefits and risks prior to starting therapy for reduction in breast cancer incidence (See in CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY). Women should understand that tamoxifen reduces the incidence of breast cancer, but may not eliminate risk. Tamoxifen decreased the incidence of small estrogen receptor positive tumors, but did not alter the incidence of estrogen receptor negative tumors or larger tumors. In women with breast cancer who are at high risk of developing a second breast cancer, treatment with about 5 years of tamoxifen reduced the annual incidence rate of a second breast cancer by approximately 50%.

Women who are pregnant or who plan to become pregnant should not take tamoxifen to reduce her risk of breast cancer. Effective nonhormonal contraception must be used by all premenopausal women taking tamoxifen and for approximately two months after discontinuing therapy if they are sexually active. Tamoxifen does not cause infertility, even in the presence of menstrual irregularity. For sexually active women of child-bearing potential, tamoxifen therapy should be initiated during menstruation. in women with menstrual irregularity, a negative ȕ -HCG immediately prior to the initiation of therapy is sufficient (See

Two European trials of tamoxifen to reduce the risk of breast cancer were conducted and showed no difference in the number of breast cancer cases between the tamoxifen and placebo arms. These studies had trial designs that differed from that of NSABP P-1, were smaller than NSABP P-1, and enrolled women at a lower risk for breast cancer than those in P-1.

Monitoring During Tamoxifen Therapy

Women taking or having previously taken tamoxifen should be instructed to seek prompt medical attention for new breast lumps, vaginal bleeding, gynecologic symptoms (menstrual irregularities, changes in vaginal discharge, or pelvic pain or pressure), symptoms of leg swelling or tenderness, unexplained shortness of breath, or changes in vision. Women should inform all care providers, regardless of the reason for evaluation, that they take tamoxifen. Women taking tamoxifen to reduce the incidence of breast cancer should have a breast examination, a mammogram, and a gynecologic examination prior to the initiation of therapy. These studies should be repeated at regular intervals while on therapy, in keeping with good medical practice. Women taking tamoxifen as adjuvant breast cancer therapy should follow the same monitoring procedures as for women taking tamoxifen for the reduction in the incidence of breast cancer. Women taking tamoxifen as treatment for metastatic breast cancer should review this monitoring plan with their care provider and select the appropriate modalities and schedule of evaluation.

Laboratory Tests

Periodic complete blood counts, including platelet counts, and periodic liver function tests should be obtained.

During the ATAC trial, more patients receiving anastrozole were reported to have an elevated serum cholesterol compared to patients receiving tamoxifen (9% versus 3.5%, respectively).

Drug Interactions

When tamoxifen is used in combination with coumarin-type anticoagulants, a significant increase in anticoagulant effect may occur. Where such coadministration exists, careful monitoring of the patient's prothrombin time is recommended.

In the NSABP P-1 trial, women who required coumarin-type anticoagulants for any reason were ineligible for participation in the trial (See ).

There is an increased risk of thromboembolic events occurring when cytotoxic agents are used in combination with tamoxifen.

Tamoxifen reduced letrozole plasma concentrations by 37%. The effect of tamoxifen on metabolism and excretion of other antineoplastic drugs, such as cyclophosphamide and other drugs that require mixed function oxidases for activation, is not known. Tamoxifen and N- desmethyl tamoxifen plasma concentrations have been shown to be reduced when coadministered with rifampin or aminoglutethimide. Induction of CYP3A4-mediated metabolism is considered to be the mechanism by which these reductions occur; other CYP3A4 inducing agents have not been studied to confirm this effect.

One patient receiving tamoxifen with concomitant phenobarbital exhibited a steady state serum level of tamoxifen lower than that observed for other patients (i.e., 26 ng/mL vs. mean value of 122 ng/mL). However, the clinical significance of this finding is not known. Rifampin induced the metabolism of tamoxifen and significantly reduced the plasma concentrations of tamoxifen in 10 patients. Aminoglutethimide reduces tamoxifen and N-desmethyl tamoxifen plasma concentrations. Medroxyprogesterone reduces plasma concentrations of N-desmethyl, but not tamoxifen.

Concomitant bromocriptine therapy has been shown to elevate serum tamoxifen and N- desmethyl tamoxifen.

Based on clinical and pharmacokinetic results from the anastrozole adjuvant trial, tamoxifen should not be administered with anastrozole (see ).

Drug/Laboratory Testing Interactions

During postmarketing surveillance, T4 elevations were reported for a few postmenopausal patients which may be explained by increases in thyroid -binding globulin. These elevations were not accompanied by clinical hyperthyroidism.

Variations in the karyopyknotic index on vaginal smears and various degrees of estrogen effect on Pap smears have been infrequently seen in postmenopausal patients given tamoxifen.

In the postmarketing experience with tamoxifen, infrequent cases of hyperlipidemias have been reported. Periodic monitoring of plasma triglycerides and cholesterol may be indicated in patients with pre-existing hyperlipidemias (See ).

Carcinogenesis

A conventional carcinogenesis study in rats at doses of 5, 20, and 35 mg/kg/day (about one, three and seven-fold the daily maximum recommended human dose on a mg/m basis) administered by oral gavage for up to 2 years revealed a significant increase in hepatocellular carcinoma at all doses. The incidence of these tumors was significantly greater among rats administered 20 or 35 mg/kg/day (69%) compared to those administered 5 mg/kg/day (14%). In a separate study, rats were administered tamoxifen at 45 mg/kg/day (about nine-fold the daily maximum recommended human dose on a mg/m basis); hepatocellular neoplasia was exhibited at 3 to 6 months. Granulosa cell ovarian tumors and interstitial cell testicular tumors were observed in two separate mouse studies. The mice were administered the trans and racemic forms of tamoxifen for 13 to 15 months at doses of 5, 20 and 50 mg/kg/day (about one-half, two and five- fold the daily recommended human dose on a mg/m basis).

Mutagenesis

No genotoxic potential was found in a conventional battery of in vivo and in vitro tests with pro- and eukaryotic test systems with drug metabolizing systems. However, increased levels of DNA adducts were observed by P post-labeling in DNA from rat liver and cultured human lymphocytes. Tamoxifen also has been found to increase levels of micronucleus formation in vitro in human lymphoblastoid cell line (MCL-5). Based on these findings, tamoxifen is genotoxic in rodent and human MCL-5 cells.

Impairment of Fertility

Tamoxifen produced impairment of fertility and conception in female rats at doses of 0.04 mg/kg/day (about 0.01-fold the daily maximum recommended human dose on a mg/m basis) when dosed for two weeks prior to mating through day 7 of pregnancy. At this dose, fertility and reproductive indices were markedly reduced with total fetal mortality. Fetal mortality was also increased at doses of 0.16 mg/kg/day (about 0.03-fold the daily maximum recommended human dose on a mg/m basis) when female rats were dosed from days 7-17 of pregnancy. Tamoxifen produced abortion, premature delivery and fetal death in rabbits administered doses equal to or greater than 0.125 mg/kg/day (about 0.05-fold the daily maximum recommended human dose on a mg/m basis). There were no teratogenic changes in either rats or rabbits.

Pregnancy

Nursing Mothers

Tamoxifen has been reported to inhibit lactation. Two placebo-controlled studies in over 150 women have shown that tamoxifen significantly inhibits early postpartum milk production. In both studies tamoxifen was administered within 24 hours of delivery for between 5 and 18 days. The effect of tamoxifen on established milk production is not known.

There are no data that address whether tamoxifen is excreted into human milk. If excreted, there are no data regarding the effects of tamoxifen in breast milk on the breastfed infant or breastfed animals. However, direct neonatal exposure of tamoxifen to mice and rats (not via breast milk) produced 1) reproductive tract lesions in female rodents (similar to those seen in humans after intrauterine exposure to diethylstilbestrol) and 2) functional defects of the reproductive tract in male rodents such as testicular atrophy and arrest of spermatogenesis.

It is not known if tamoxifen is excreted in human milk. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from tamoxifen, women taking tamoxifen should not breast feed.

Reduction in Breast Cancer Incidence in High Risk Women and Women with DCIS

It is not known if tamoxifen is excreted in human milk. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from tamoxifen, women taking tamoxifen should not breast feed.

Pediatric Use

The safety and efficacy of tamoxifen for girls aged 2 to 10 years with McCune-Albright syndrome and precocious puberty have not been studied beyond one year of treatment. The long-term effects of tamoxifen therapy for girls have not been established.

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Geriatric Use

Geriatric Use In the NSABP P-1 trial, the percentage of women at least 65 years of age was 16%. Women at least 70 years of age accounted for 6% of the participants. A reduction in breast cancer incidence was seen among participants in each of the subsets: A total of 28 and 10 invasive breast cancers were seen among participants 65 and older in the placebo and tamoxifen groups, respectively. Across all other outcomes, the results in this subset reflect the results observed in the subset of women at least 50 years of age. No overall differences in tolerability were observed between older and younger patients (See ).

In the NSABP B-24 trial, the percentage of women at least 65 years of age was 23%. Women at least 70 years of age accounted for 10% of participants. A total of 14 and 12 invasive breast cancers were seen among participants 65 and older in the placebo and tamoxifen groups, respectively. This subset is too small to reach any conclusions on efficacy. Across all other endpoints, the results in this subset were comparable to those of younger women enrolled in this trial. No overall differences in tolerability were observed between older and younger patients.


What are the side effects of Soltamox?

Adverse reactions to tamoxifen are relatively mild and rarely severe enough to require discontinuation of treatment in breast cancer patients.

Continued clinical studies have resulted in further information which better indicates the incidence of adverse reactions with tamoxifen as compared to placebo.

In one single-dose pharmacokinetic study in healthy perimenopausal and postmenopausal female volunteers, throat irritation was reported by 3 of 60 evaluable subjects (5.0%) in the SOLTAMOX® treatment groups while none of the subjects in the tamoxifen reference group reported this event. All events were mild and occurred within an hour after dosing. All events were resolved within 24 hours.

Metastatic Breast Cancer

Increased bone and tumor pain and, also, local disease flare have occurred, which are sometimes associated with a good tumor response. Patients with increased bone pain may require additional analgesics. Patients with soft tissue disease may have sudden increases in the size of preexisting lesions, sometimes associated with marked erythema within and surrounding the lesions and/or the development of new lesions. When they occur, the bone pain or disease flare are seen shortly after starting tamoxifen and generally subside rapidly.

In patients treated with tamoxifen for metastatic breast cancer, the most frequent adverse reaction to tamoxifen is hot flashes.

Other adverse reactions which are seen infrequently are hypercalcemia, peripheral edema, distaste for food, pruritus vulvae, depression, dizziness, light-headedness, headache, hair thinning and/or partial hair loss, and vaginal dryness.

Premenopausal Women

The following table summarizes the incidence of adverse reactions reported at a frequency of 2% or greater from clinical trials (Ingle, Pritchard, Buchanan) which compared tamoxifen therapy to ovarian ablation in premenopausal patients with metastatic breast cancer.

TAMOXIFENAll effects % of WomenOVARIAN ABLATIONAll effects % of Women
Adverse Reactions n = 104n = 100
Flush3346
Amenorrhea1669
Altered Menses135
Oligomenorrhea91
Bone Pain66
Menstrual Disorder64
Nausea54
Cough/Coughing41
Edema41
Fatigue41
Musculoskeletal Pain30
Pain34
Ovarian Cyst(s)32
Depression22
Abdominal Cramps12
Anorexia12


Male Breast Cancer

Tamoxifen is well tolerated in males with breast cancer. Reports from the literature and case reports suggest that the safety profile of tamoxifen in males is similar to that seen in women. Loss of libido and impotence have resulted in discontinuation of tamoxifen therapy in male patients. Also, in oligospermic males treated with tamoxifen, LH, FSH, testosterone and estrogen levels were elevated. No significant clinical changes were reported.

Adjuvant Breast Cancer

In the NSABP B-14 study, women with axillary node-negative breast cancer were randomized to 5 years of tamoxifen 20 mg/day or placebo following primary surgery. The reported adverse effects are tabulated below (mean follow-up of approximately 6.8 years) showing adverse events more common on tamoxifen than on placebo. The incidence of hot flashes (64% vs. 48%), vaginal discharge (30% vs. 15%), and irregular menses (25% vs. 19%) were higher with tamoxifen compared with placebo. All other adverse effects occurred with similar frequency in the 2 treatment groups, with the exception of thrombotic events; a higher incidence was seen in tamoxifen-treated patients (through 5 years, 1.7% vs. 0.4%). Two of the patients treated with tamoxifen who had thrombotic events died.

In the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) adjuvant breast cancer trial, tamoxifen or placebo was administered for 2 years to women following mastectomy. When compared to placebo, tamoxifen showed a significantly higher incidence of hot flashes (19% vs. 8% for placebo). The incidence of all other adverse reactions was similar in the 2 treatment groups with the exception of thrombocytopenia where the incidence for tamoxifen was 10% vs. 3% for placebo, an observation of borderline statistical significance.

In other adjuvant studies, Toronto and tamoxifen Adjuvant Trial Organization (NATO), women received either tamoxifen or no therapy. In the Toronto study, hot flashes were observed in 29% of patients for tamoxifen vs. 1% in the untreated group. In the NATO trial, hot flashes and vaginal bleeding were reported in 2.8% and 2.0% of women, respectively, for tamoxifen vs. 0.2% for each in the untreated group.

NSABP B-14 Study
% of Women
Adverse EffectTAMOXIFEN(n = 1,422)PLACEBO(n = 1,437)
Hot Flashes6448
Fluid Retention3230
Vaginal Discharge3015
Nausea2624
Irregular Menses2519
Weight Loss (> 5%)2318
Skin Changes1915
Increased SGOT53
Increased Bilirubin21
Increased Creatinine21
Thrombocytopenia 21
Thrombotic Events
Deep-Vein Thrombosis0.80.2
Pulmonary Embolism0.50.2
Superficial Phlebitis0.40.0


(see ).

At a median follow-up of 33 months, the combination of anastrozole and tamoxifen did not demonstrate any efficacy benefit when compared to tamoxifen therapy given alone in all patients as well as in the hormone receptor positive subpopulation. This treatment arm was discontinued from the trial. The median duration of adjuvant treatment for safety evaluation was 59.8 months and 59.6 months for patients receiving anastrozole 1 mg and tamoxifen 20 mg, respectively.

Adverse events occurring with an incidence of at least 5% in either treatment group during treatment or within 14 days of the end of treatment are presented in the following table.

Certain adverse events and combinations of adverse events were prospectively specified for analysis, based on the known pharmacologic properties and side effect profiles of the two drugs (see the following table).

Patients receiving anastrozole had an increase in joint disorders (including arthritis, arthrosis and arthralgia) compared with patients receiving tamoxifen. Patients receiving anastrozole had an increase in the incidence of all fractures (specifically fractures of spine, hip and wrist) [315 (10%)] compared with patients receiving tamoxifen [209 (7%)]. Patients receiving anastrozole had a decrease in hot flashes, vaginal bleeding, vaginal discharge, endometrial cancer, venous thromboembolic events and ischemic cerebrovascular events compared with patients receiving tamoxifen.

Patients receiving tamoxifen had a decrease in hypercholesterolemia [108 (3.5%)] compared to patients receiving anastrozole [278 (9%)]. Angina pectoris was reported in 71 (2.3%) patients in the anastrozole arm and 51 (1.6%) patients in the tamoxifen arm; myocardial infarction was reported in 37 (1.2%) patients in the anastrozole arm and in 34 (1.1%) patients in the tamoxifen arm.

Results from the adjuvant trial bone substudy, at 12 and 24 months demonstrated that patients receiving anastozole had a mean decrease in both lumbar spine and total hip bone mineral density (BMD) compared to baseline. Patients receiving tamoxifen had a mean increase in both lumbar spine and total hip BMD compared to baseline.

Adverse events occurring with an incidence of at least 5% in either treatment group during treatment, or within 14 days of the end of treatment
N = Number of patients receiving the treatment.
Body system and adverse event by COSTART-preferred term
Adverse EffectANASTROZOLE 1 mg(N = 3,092)TAMOXIFEN 20 mg(N = 3,094)
Body as a whole
Asthenia575 (19)544 (18)
Pain533 (17)485 (16)
Back pain321 (10)309 (10)
Headache314 (10)249 (8)
Abdominal pain271 (9)276 (9)
Infection285 (9)276 (9)
Accidental injury311 (10)303 (10)
Flu syndrome175 (6)195 (6)
Chest pain200 (7)150 (5)
Neoplasm162 (5)144 (5)
Cyst138 (5)162 (5)
Cardiovascular
Vasodilatation1,104 (36)1,264 (41)
Hypertension402 (13)349 (11)
Digestive
Nausea343 (11)335 (11)
Constipation249 (8)252 (8)
Diarrhea265 (9)216 (7)
Dyspepsia206 (7)169 (6)
Gastrointestinal disorder210 (7)158 (5)
Hemic and lymphatic
Lymphoedema304 (10)341 (11)
Anemia113 (4)159 (5)
Metabolic and nutritional
Peripheral edema311 (10)343 (11)
Weight gain285 (9)274 (9)
Hypercholesterolemia278 (9)108 (3.5)
Musculoskeletal
Arthritis512 (17)445 (14)
Arthralgia467 (15)344 (11)
Osteoporosis325 (11)226 (7)
Fracture315 (10)209 (7)
Bone pain201 (7)185 (6)
Arthrosis207 (7)156 (5)
Joint disorder184 (6)160 (5)
Myalgia179 (6)160 (5)
Nervous system
Depression413 (13)382 (12)
Insomnia309 (10)281 (9)
Dizziness236 (8)234 (8)
Anxiety195 (6)180 (6)
Paraesthesia215 (7)145 (5)
Respiratory
Pharyngitis443 (14)422 (14)
Cough increased261 (8)287 (9)
Dyspnea234 (8)237 (8)
Sinusitis184 (6)159 (5)
Bronchitis167 (5)153 (5)
Skin and appendages
Rash333 (11)387 (13)
Sweating145 (5)177 (6)
Special Senses
Cataract specified182 (6)213 (7)
Urogenital
Leukorrhea86 (3)286 (9)
Urinary tract infection244 (8)313 (10)
Breast pain251 (8)169 (6)
Breast neoplasm164 (5)139 (5)
Vulvovaginitis194 (6)150 (5)
Vaginal hemorrhage 122 (4)180 (6)
Vaginitis125 (4)158 (5)
Number (%) of Patients with Pre-Specified Adverse Event in the Anastrozole Adjuvant Trial
AnastrozoleN = 3,092(%)TamoxifenN = 3,094(%)Odds-Ratio 95% CI
Hot Flashes1,104 (36)1,264 (41)0.800.73 to 0.89
Musculoskeletal Events 1,100 (36)911 (29)1.321.19 to 1.47
Fatigue/Asthenia575 (19)544 (18)1.070.94 to 1.22
Mood Disturbances597 (19)554 (18)1.100.97 to 1.25
Nausea and Vomiting393 (13)384 (12)1.030.88 to 1.19
All Fractures315 (10)209 (7)1.571.30 to 1.88
Fractures of Spine, Hip, or Wrist133 (4)91 (3)1.481.13 to 1.95
Wrist/Colles' fractures67 (2)50 (2)
Spine fractures43 (1)22 (1)
Hip fractures28 (1)26 (1)
Cataracts182 (6)213 (7)0.850.69 to 1.04
Vaginal Bleeding167 (5)317 (10)0.500.41 to 0.61
Ischemic Cardiovascular Disease127 (4)104 (3)1.230.95 to 1.60
Vaginal Discharge109 (4)408 (13)0.240.19 to 0.30
Venous Thromboembolic Events87 (3)140 (5)0.610.47 to 0.80
Deep Venous Thromboembolic Events48 (2)74 (2)0.640.64
Ischemic Cerebrovascular Event62 (2)88 (3)0.700.50 to 0.97
Endometrial Cancer 4 (0.2)13 (0.6)0.310.10 to 0.94


Ductal Carcinoma in Situ (DCIS)

The type and frequency of adverse events in the NSABP B-24 trial were consistent with those observed in the other adjuvant trials conducted with tamoxifen.

Reduction in Breast Cancer Incidence in High Risk Women

In the NSABP P-1 Trial, there was an increase in five serious adverse effects in the tamoxifen group: endometrial cancer (33 cases in the tamoxifen group vs. 14 in the placebo group); pulmonary embolism (18 cases in the tamoxifen group vs. 6 in the placebo group); deep vein thrombosis (30 cases in the tamoxifen group vs. 19 in the placebo group); stroke (34 cases in the tamoxifen group vs. 24 in the placebo group); cataract formation (540 cases in the tamoxifen group vs. 483 in the placebo group) and cataract surgery (101 cases in the tamoxifen group vs. 63 in the placebo group) (See and in ).

The following table presents the adverse events observed in NSABP P-1 by treatment arm. Only adverse events more common on tamoxifen than placebo are shown.

In the NSABP P-1 trial, 15.0% and 9.7% of participants receiving tamoxifen and placebo therapy, respectively, withdrew from the trial for medical reasons. The following are the medical reasons for withdrawing from tamoxifen and placebo therapy, respectively: Hot flashes (3.1% vs. 1.5%) and Vaginal Discharge (0.5% vs. 0.1%).

In the NSABP P-1 trial, 8.7% and 9.6% of participants receiving tamoxifen and placebo therapy, respectively, withdrew for non-medical reasons.

On the NSABP P-1 trial, hot flashes of any severity occurred in 68% of women on placebo and in 80% of women on tamoxifen. Severe hot flashes occurred in 28% of women on placebo and 45% of women on tamoxifen. Vaginal discharge occurred in 35% and 55% of women on placebo and tamoxifen respectively; and was severe in 4.5% and 12.3% respectively. There was no difference in the incidence of vaginal bleeding between treatment arms.

NSABP P-1 Trial: All Adverse Events
% of Women
TAMOXIFENPLACEBO
N = 6,681N = 6,707
Self Reported SymptomsN = 6,441 N = 6,469
Hot Flashes8068
Vaginal Discharges5535
Vaginal Bleeding2322
Laboratory AbnormalitiesN = 6,520 N = 6,535
Platelets Decreased 0.70.3
Adverse EffectsN = 6,492 N = 6,484
Other Toxicities
Mood11.610.8
Infection/Sepsis6.05.1
Constipation4.43.2
Alopecia5.24.4
Skin5.64.7
Allergy2.52.1


Pediatric Patients

Mean uterine volume increased after 6 months of treatment and doubled at the end of the one- year study. A causal relationship has not been established; however, as an increase in the incidence of endometrial adenocarcinoma and uterine sarcoma has been noted in adults treated with tamoxifen (see ), continued monitoring of McCune-Albright patients treated with tamoxifen for long-term effects is recommended.

Postmarketing Experience

Less frequently reported adverse reactions are vaginal bleeding, vaginal discharge, menstrual irregularities, skin rash and headaches. Usually these have not been of sufficient severity to require dosage reduction or discontinuation of treatment. Very rare reports of erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, bullous pemphigoid, interstitial pneumonitis, and rare reports of hypersensitivity reactions including angioedema have been reported with tamoxifen therapy. In some of these cases, the time to onset was more than one year. Rarely, elevation of serum triglyceride levels, in some cases with pancreatitis, may be associated with the use of tamoxifen (see ).


What should I look out for while using Soltamox?

Tamoxifen citrate is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to the drug or any of its ingredients.

Reduction in Breast Cancer Incidence in High Risk Women and Women with DCIS Tamoxifen is contraindicated in women who require concomitant coumarin-type anticoagulant therapy or in women with a history of deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolus.


What might happen if I take too much Soltamox?

Signs observed at the highest doses following studies to determine LD in animals were respiratory difficulties and convulsions.

Acute overdosage in humans has not been reported. In a study of advanced metastatic cancer patients which specifically determined the maximum tolerated dose of tamoxifen in evaluating the use of very high doses to reverse multidrug resistance, acute neurotoxicity manifested by tremor, hyperreflexia, unsteady gait and dizziness were noted. These symptoms occurred within 3-5 days of beginning tamoxifen and cleared within 2-5 days after stopping therapy. No permanent neurologic toxicity was noted. One patient experienced a seizure several days after tamoxifen was discontinued and neurotoxic symptoms had resolved. The causal relationship of the seizure to tamoxifen therapy is unknown. Doses given in these patients were all greater than 400 mg/m loading dose, followed by maintenance doses of 150 mg/m of tamoxifen given twice a day.

In the same study, prolongation of the QT interval on the electrocardiogram was noted when patients were given doses higher than 250 mg/m loading dose, followed by maintenance doses of 80 mg/m of tamoxifen given twice a day. For a woman with a body surface area of 1.5 m the minimal loading dose and maintenance doses given at which neurological symptoms and QT changes occurred were at least 6 fold higher in respect to the maximum recommended dose.

No specific treatment for overdosage is known; treatment must be symptomatic.


How should I store and handle Soltamox?

Store at 25ºC (77ºF); excursions permitted to 15° to 30ºC (59° to 86ºF) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].SOLTAMOX® Oral Solution is a sugar -free, clear colorless liquid, with licorice and aniseed odor and taste. It is supplied in a 150 mL bottle with a dosing cup intended for the measurement of SOLTAMOX® Oral Solution only. Each 10 mL solution contains 20 mg tamoxifen, equivalent to 30.4 mg tamoxifen citrate.NDC # 89141-123-01SOLTAMOX® Oral Solution is a sugar -free, clear colorless liquid, with licorice and aniseed odor and taste. It is supplied in a 150 mL bottle with a dosing cup intended for the measurement of SOLTAMOX® Oral Solution only. Each 10 mL solution contains 20 mg tamoxifen, equivalent to 30.4 mg tamoxifen citrate.NDC # 89141-123-01


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Clinical Information

Chemical Structure

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Clinical Pharmacology

A pharmacokinetic study was performed in healthy perimenopausal and postmenopausal female subjects to evaluate the bioavailability of SOLTAMOX® (n=30) in comparison with the commercially available tamoxifen citrate tablets (n=33) under fasting conditions. A third arm evaluated the effect of food on SOLTAMOX® (n=16 evaluable). The rate and extent of absorption of SOLTAMOX® was found to be bioequivalent to that of tamoxifen citrate tablets under fasting conditions.

In the food effect arm, the C and AUC were comparable to the fasting group. T was slightly longer in the fed group. There was no difference in bioavailability of SOLTAMOX® Oral Solution between fed and fasting states, and therefore SOLTAMOX® can be given without regard to meals.

Following a single oral dose of 20 mg tamoxifen, an average peak plasma concentration of 40 ng/mL (range 35 to 45 ng/mL) occurred approximately 5 hours after dosing. The decline in plasma concentrations of tamoxifen is biphasic with a terminal elimination half-life of about 5 to 7 days. The average peak plasma concentration of N-desmethyl tamoxifen is 15 ng/mL (range 10 to 20 ng/mL). Chronic administration of 10 mg tamoxifen given twice daily for 3 months to patients results in average steady-state plasma concentrations of 120 ng/mL (range 67-183 ng/mL) for tamoxifen and 336 ng/mL (range 148-654 ng/mL) for N-desmethyl tamoxifen. The average steady-state plasma concentrations of tamoxifen and N-desmethyl tamoxifen after administration of 20 mg tamoxifen once daily for 3 months are 122 ng/mL (range 71-183 ng/mL) and 353 ng/mL (range 152-706 ng/mL), respectively. After initiation of therapy, steady-state concentrations for tamoxifen are achieved in about 4 weeks and steady-state concentrations for N-desmethyl tamoxifen are achieved in about 8 weeks, suggesting a half-life of approximately 14 days for this metabolite. In a steady-state, crossover study of 10 mg tamoxifen tablets given twice a day vs. a 20 mg tamoxifen tablet given once daily, the 20 mg tamoxifen tablet was bioequivalent to the 10 mg tamoxifen tablets.

Non-Clinical Toxicology
Tamoxifen citrate is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to the drug or any of its ingredients.

Reduction in Breast Cancer Incidence in High Risk Women and Women with DCIS Tamoxifen is contraindicated in women who require concomitant coumarin-type anticoagulant therapy or in women with a history of deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolus.

When tamoxifen is used in combination with coumarin-type anticoagulants, a significant increase in anticoagulant effect may occur. Where such coadministration exists, careful monitoring of the patient's prothrombin time is recommended.

In the NSABP P-1 trial, women who required coumarin-type anticoagulants for any reason were ineligible for participation in the trial (See ).

There is an increased risk of thromboembolic events occurring when cytotoxic agents are used in combination with tamoxifen.

Tamoxifen reduced letrozole plasma concentrations by 37%. The effect of tamoxifen on metabolism and excretion of other antineoplastic drugs, such as cyclophosphamide and other drugs that require mixed function oxidases for activation, is not known. Tamoxifen and N- desmethyl tamoxifen plasma concentrations have been shown to be reduced when coadministered with rifampin or aminoglutethimide. Induction of CYP3A4-mediated metabolism is considered to be the mechanism by which these reductions occur; other CYP3A4 inducing agents have not been studied to confirm this effect.

One patient receiving tamoxifen with concomitant phenobarbital exhibited a steady state serum level of tamoxifen lower than that observed for other patients (i.e., 26 ng/mL vs. mean value of 122 ng/mL). However, the clinical significance of this finding is not known. Rifampin induced the metabolism of tamoxifen and significantly reduced the plasma concentrations of tamoxifen in 10 patients. Aminoglutethimide reduces tamoxifen and N-desmethyl tamoxifen plasma concentrations. Medroxyprogesterone reduces plasma concentrations of N-desmethyl, but not tamoxifen.

Concomitant bromocriptine therapy has been shown to elevate serum tamoxifen and N- desmethyl tamoxifen.

Based on clinical and pharmacokinetic results from the anastrozole adjuvant trial, tamoxifen should not be administered with anastrozole (see ).

Decreases in platelet counts, usually to 50,000-100,000/mm3, infrequently lower, have been occasionally reported in patients taking tamoxifen for breast cancer. In patients with significant thrombocytopenia, rare hemorrhagic episodes have occurred, but it is uncertain if these episodes are due to tamoxifen therapy. Leukopenia has been observed, sometimes in association with anemia and/or thrombocytopenia. There have been rare reports of neutropenia and pancytopenia in patients receiving tamoxifen; this can sometimes be severe.

In the NSABP P-1 trial, 6 women on tamoxifen and 2 on placebo experienced grade 3-4 drops in platelet count (" 50,000/mm).

Adverse reactions to tamoxifen are relatively mild and rarely severe enough to require discontinuation of treatment in breast cancer patients.

Continued clinical studies have resulted in further information which better indicates the incidence of adverse reactions with tamoxifen as compared to placebo.

In one single-dose pharmacokinetic study in healthy perimenopausal and postmenopausal female volunteers, throat irritation was reported by 3 of 60 evaluable subjects (5.0%) in the SOLTAMOX® treatment groups while none of the subjects in the tamoxifen reference group reported this event. All events were mild and occurred within an hour after dosing. All events were resolved within 24 hours.

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Reference

This information is obtained from the National Institute of Health's Standard Packaging Label drug database.
"https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/"

While we update our database periodically, we cannot guarantee it is always updated to the latest version.

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Clonazepam Description Each single-scored tablet, for oral administration, contains 0.5 mg, 1 mg, or 2 mg Clonazepam, USP, a benzodiazepine. Each tablet also contains corn starch, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and povidone. Clonazepam tablets USP 0.5 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake. Clonazepam tablets USP 1 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake, as well as FD&C Blue No. 1 Aluminum Lake. Chemically, Clonazepam, USP is 5-(o-chlorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-7-nitro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one. It is a light yellow crystalline powder. It has the following structural formula: C15H10ClN3O3 M.W. 315.72
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Interactions

Interactions

A total of 440 drugs (1549 brand and generic names) are known to interact with Imbruvica (ibrutinib). 228 major drug interactions (854 brand and generic names) 210 moderate drug interactions (691 brand and generic names) 2 minor drug interactions (4 brand and generic names) Show all medications in the database that may interact with Imbruvica (ibrutinib).