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Sprix

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Overview

What is Sprix?

SPRIX (ketorolac tromethamine) Nasal Spray is a member of the pyrrolo-pyrrole group of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, available as a clear, colorless to yellow solution packaged in a glass vial with a snap on spray pump that delivers 15.75 mg ketorolac tromethamine per spray and is intended for intranasal administration. The chemical name is (±)-5-benzoyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrrolizine-1-carboxylic acid, compound with 2-amino-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-propanediol (1:1). The molecular weight is 376.41.

Its molecular formula is CHNO(CHNO•CHNO), and it has the following chemical structure.

Ketorolac tromethamine is highly water-soluble, allowing its formulation in an aqueous nasal spray product at pH 7.2.

The inactive ingredients in SPRIX include: edetate disodium (EDTA), monobasic potassium phosphate, sodium hydroxide, and water for injection.



What does Sprix look like?



What are the available doses of Sprix?

SPRIX (ketorolac tromethamine) Nasal Spray: 15.75 mg of ketorolac tromethamine in each 100 μL spray. Each 1.7 g bottle contains 8 sprays. ()

What should I talk to my health care provider before I take Sprix?

Pregnancy

Infertility

How should I use Sprix?

SPRIX is indicated in adult patients for the short term (up to 5 days) management of moderate to moderately severe pain that requires analgesia at the opioid level.

Limitations of Use

Use the lowest effective dosage for the shortest duration consistent with individual patient treatment goals [].

The total duration of use of SPRIX alone or sequentially with other formulations of ketorolac (IM/IV or oral) must not exceed 5 days because of the potential for increasing the frequency and severity of adverse reactions associated with the recommended doses [].

Do not use SPRIX concomitantly with other formulations of ketorolac or other NSAIDs [].


What interacts with Sprix?

Sorry No Records found


What are the warnings of Sprix?

Sorry No Records found


What are the precautions of Sprix?

Sorry No Records found


What are the side effects of Sprix?

Sorry No records found


What should I look out for while using Sprix?

SPRIX is contraindicated in the following patients:

Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events

Gastrointestinal Bleeding, Ulceration, and Perforation


What might happen if I take too much Sprix?

Symptoms following acute NSAID overdosages have been typically limited to lethargy, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, and epigastric pain, which have been generally reversible with supportive care. Gastrointestinal bleeding has occurred. Hypertension, acute renal failure, respiratory depression, and coma have occurred, but were rare [].

There has been no experience with overdosage of SPRIX. In controlled overdosage studies with IM ketorolac injection, daily doses of 360 mg given for five days (approximately 3 times the maximum daily dose of SPRIX) caused abdominal pain and peptic ulcers, which healed after discontinuation of dosing. Single overdoses of ketorolac tromethamine have been variously associated with abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, hyperventilation, peptic ulcers and/or erosive gastritis, and renal dysfunction.

Manage patients with symptomatic and supportive care following an NSAID overdosage. There are no specific antidotes. Consider emesis and/or activated charcoal (60 to 100 grams in adults, 1 to 2 grams per kg of body weight in pediatric patients) and/or osmotic cathartic in symptomatic patients seen within four hours of ingestion or in patients with a large overdosage (5 to 10 times the recommended dosage). Forced diuresis, alkalinization of urine, hemodialysis, or hemoperfusion may not be useful due to high protein binding.

For additional information about overdosage treatment contact a poison control center (1-800-222-1222).


How should I store and handle Sprix?

Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].SPRIX (ketorolac tromethamine) Nasal Spray, 15.75 mg/spray, are single-day preservative-free spray bottles, supplied as:           NDC 69344-144-43 Carton containing 5 single-day nasal spray bottles            NDC 69344-144-53 Carton containing 1 single-day nasal spray bottle Each single-day nasal spray bottle contains a sufficient quantity of solution to deliver 8 sprays for a total of 126 mg of ketorolac tromethamine. Each spray delivers 15.75 mg of ketorolac tromethamine. The delivery system is designed to administer precisely metered doses of 100 µL per spray.StorageProtect from light and freezing. Store unopened SPRIX between 2°C to 8°C (36°F to 46°F). During use, keep containers of SPRIX Nasal Spray at controlled room temperature, between 15°C to 30°C (59°F to 86°F), out of direct sunlight. Bottles of SPRIX should be discarded within 24 hours of priming.SPRIX (ketorolac tromethamine) Nasal Spray, 15.75 mg/spray, are single-day preservative-free spray bottles, supplied as:           NDC 69344-144-43 Carton containing 5 single-day nasal spray bottles            NDC 69344-144-53 Carton containing 1 single-day nasal spray bottle Each single-day nasal spray bottle contains a sufficient quantity of solution to deliver 8 sprays for a total of 126 mg of ketorolac tromethamine. Each spray delivers 15.75 mg of ketorolac tromethamine. The delivery system is designed to administer precisely metered doses of 100 µL per spray.StorageProtect from light and freezing. Store unopened SPRIX between 2°C to 8°C (36°F to 46°F). During use, keep containers of SPRIX Nasal Spray at controlled room temperature, between 15°C to 30°C (59°F to 86°F), out of direct sunlight. Bottles of SPRIX should be discarded within 24 hours of priming.SPRIX (ketorolac tromethamine) Nasal Spray, 15.75 mg/spray, are single-day preservative-free spray bottles, supplied as:           NDC 69344-144-43 Carton containing 5 single-day nasal spray bottles            NDC 69344-144-53 Carton containing 1 single-day nasal spray bottle Each single-day nasal spray bottle contains a sufficient quantity of solution to deliver 8 sprays for a total of 126 mg of ketorolac tromethamine. Each spray delivers 15.75 mg of ketorolac tromethamine. The delivery system is designed to administer precisely metered doses of 100 µL per spray.StorageProtect from light and freezing. Store unopened SPRIX between 2°C to 8°C (36°F to 46°F). During use, keep containers of SPRIX Nasal Spray at controlled room temperature, between 15°C to 30°C (59°F to 86°F), out of direct sunlight. Bottles of SPRIX should be discarded within 24 hours of priming.SPRIX (ketorolac tromethamine) Nasal Spray, 15.75 mg/spray, are single-day preservative-free spray bottles, supplied as:           NDC 69344-144-43 Carton containing 5 single-day nasal spray bottles            NDC 69344-144-53 Carton containing 1 single-day nasal spray bottle Each single-day nasal spray bottle contains a sufficient quantity of solution to deliver 8 sprays for a total of 126 mg of ketorolac tromethamine. Each spray delivers 15.75 mg of ketorolac tromethamine. The delivery system is designed to administer precisely metered doses of 100 µL per spray.StorageProtect from light and freezing. Store unopened SPRIX between 2°C to 8°C (36°F to 46°F). During use, keep containers of SPRIX Nasal Spray at controlled room temperature, between 15°C to 30°C (59°F to 86°F), out of direct sunlight. Bottles of SPRIX should be discarded within 24 hours of priming.SPRIX (ketorolac tromethamine) Nasal Spray, 15.75 mg/spray, are single-day preservative-free spray bottles, supplied as:           NDC 69344-144-43 Carton containing 5 single-day nasal spray bottles            NDC 69344-144-53 Carton containing 1 single-day nasal spray bottle Each single-day nasal spray bottle contains a sufficient quantity of solution to deliver 8 sprays for a total of 126 mg of ketorolac tromethamine. Each spray delivers 15.75 mg of ketorolac tromethamine. The delivery system is designed to administer precisely metered doses of 100 µL per spray.StorageProtect from light and freezing. Store unopened SPRIX between 2°C to 8°C (36°F to 46°F). During use, keep containers of SPRIX Nasal Spray at controlled room temperature, between 15°C to 30°C (59°F to 86°F), out of direct sunlight. Bottles of SPRIX should be discarded within 24 hours of priming.


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Clinical Information

Chemical Structure

No Image found
Clinical Pharmacology

Ketorolac has analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties.

The mechanism of action of SPRIX, like that of other NSAIDs, is not completely understood but involves inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and COX-2), an early component of the arachidonic acid cascade, resulting in the reduced synthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and prostacyclin.

Ketorolac is a potent inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis . Ketorolac concentrations reached during therapy have produced effects. Prostaglandins sensitize afferent nerves and potentiate the action of bradykinin in inducing pain in animal models. Prostaglandins are mediators of inflammation. Because ketorolac is an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis, its mode of action may be due to a decrease of prostaglandins in peripheral tissues.

Non-Clinical Toxicology
SPRIX is contraindicated in the following patients:

Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events

Gastrointestinal Bleeding, Ulceration, and Perforation

Healthy subjects who received rifampin 600 mg once daily concomitantly with saquinavir 1000 mg/ritonavir 100 mg twice daily (ritonavir-boosted saquinavir) developed severe hepatocellular toxicity. Therefore, concomitant use of these medications is contraindicated (see ).

Enzyme Induction: Rifampin is known to induce certain cytochrome P-450 enzymes. Administration of rifampin with drugs that undergo biotransformation through these metabolic pathways may accelerate elimination of coadministered drugs. To maintain optimum therapeutic blood levels, dosages of drugs metabolized by these enzymes may require adjustment when starting or stopping concomitantly administered rifampin.

Rifampin has been reported to substantially decrease the plasma concentrations of the following antiviral drugs: atazanavir, darunavir, fosamprenavir, saquinavir, and tipranavir. These antiviral drugs must not be co-administered with rifampin (see ).

Rifampin has been reported to accelerate the metabolism of the following drugs: anticonvulsants (e.g., phenytoin), digitoxin, antiarrhythmics (e.g., disopyramide, mexiletine, quinidine, tocainide), oral anticoagulants, antifungals (e.g., fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole), barbiturates, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers (e.g., diltiazem, nifedipine, verapamil), chloramphenicol, clarithromycin, corticosteroids, cyclosporine, cardiac glycoside preparations, clofibrate, oral or other systemic hormonal contraceptives, dapsone, diazepam, doxycycline, fluoroquinolones (e.g., ciprofloxacin), haloperidol, oral hypoglycemic agents (sulfonylureas), levothyroxine, methadone, narcotic analgesics, progestins, quinine, tacrolimus, theophylline, tricyclic antidepressants (e.g., amitriptyline, nortriptyline) and zidovudine. It may be necessary to adjust the dosages of these drugs if they are given concurrently with rifampin.

Patients using oral or other systemic hormonal contraceptives should be advised to change to nonhormonal methods of birth control during rifampin therapy.

Rifampin has been observed to increase the requirements for anticoagulant drugs of the coumarin type. In patients receiving anticoagulants and rifampin concurrently, it is recommended that the prothrombin time be performed daily or as frequently as necessary to establish and maintain the required dose of anticoagulant.

Other Interactions: When the two drugs were taken concomitantly, decreased concentrations of atovaquone and increased concentrations of rifampin were observed.

Concurrent use of ketoconazole and rifampin has resulted in decreased serum concentrations of both drugs. Concurrent use of rifampin and enalapril has resulted in decreased concentrations of enalaprilat, the active metabolite of enalapril. Dosage adjustments should be made if indicated by the patient’s clinical condition.

Concomitant antacid administration may reduce the absorption of rifampin. Daily doses of rifampin should be given at least 1 hour before the ingestion of antacids.

Probenecid and cotrimoxazole have been reported to increase the blood level of rifampin.

When rifampin is given concomitantly with either halothane or isoniazid, the potential for hepatotoxicity is increased. The concomitant use of rifampin and halothane should be avoided. Patients receiving both rifampin and isoniazid should be monitored close for hepatotoxicity.

Plasma concentrations of sulfapyridine may be reduced following the concomitant administration of sulfasalazine and rifampin. This finding may be the result of alteration in the colonic bacteria responsible for the reduction of sulfasalazine to sulfapyridine and mesalamine.

Clinical trials of several COX-2 selective and nonselective NSAIDs of up to three years duration have shown an increased risk of serious cardiovascular (CV) thrombotic events, including myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke, which can be fatal. Based on available data, it is unclear that the risk for CV thrombotic events is similar for all NSAIDs. The relative increase in serious CV thrombotic events over baseline conferred by NSAID use appears to be similar in those with and without known CV disease or risk factors for CV disease. However, patients with known CV disease or risk factors had a higher absolute incidence of excess serious CV thrombotic events, due to their increased baseline rate. Some observational studies found that this increased risk of serious CV thrombotic events began as early as the first weeks of treatment. The increase in CV thrombotic risk has been observed most consistently at higher doses.

To minimize the potential risk for an adverse CV event in NSAID-treated patients, use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration possible. Physicians and patients should remain alert for the development of such events, throughout the entire treatment course, even in the absence of previous CV symptoms. Patients should be informed about the symptoms of serious CV events and the steps to take if they occur.

There is no consistent evidence that concurrent use of aspirin mitigates the increased risk of serious CV thrombotic events associated with NSAID use. The concurrent use of aspirin and an NSAID, such as ketorolac, increases the risk of serious gastrointestinal (GI) events [].

Status Post Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) Surgery

Two large, controlled clinical trials of a COX-2 selective NSAID for the treatment of pain in the first 10–14 days following CABG surgery found an increased incidence of myocardial infarction and stroke. NSAIDs are contraindicated in the setting of CABG [].

Post-MI Patients

Observational studies conducted in the Danish National Registry have demonstrated that patients treated with NSAIDs in the post-MI period were at increased risk of reinfarction, CV-related death, and all-cause mortality beginning in the first week of treatment. In this same cohort, the incidence of death in the first year post-MI was 20 per 100 person years in NSAID-treated patients compared to 12 per 100 person years in non-NSAID exposed patients. Although the absolute rate of death declined somewhat after the first year post-MI, the increased relative risk of death in NSAID users persisted over at least the next four years of follow-up.

Avoid the use of SPRIX in patients with a recent MI unless the benefits are expected to outweigh the risk of recurrent CV thrombotic events. If SPRIX is used in patients with a recent MI, monitor patients for signs of cardiac ischemia.

The following adverse reactions are discussed in greater detail in other sections of the labeling:

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Reference

This information is obtained from the National Institute of Health's Standard Packaging Label drug database.
"https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/"

While we update our database periodically, we cannot guarantee it is always updated to the latest version.

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Clonazepam Description Each single-scored tablet, for oral administration, contains 0.5 mg, 1 mg, or 2 mg Clonazepam, USP, a benzodiazepine. Each tablet also contains corn starch, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and povidone. Clonazepam tablets USP 0.5 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake. Clonazepam tablets USP 1 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake, as well as FD&C Blue No. 1 Aluminum Lake. Chemically, Clonazepam, USP is 5-(o-chlorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-7-nitro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one. It is a light yellow crystalline powder. It has the following structural formula: C15H10ClN3O3 M.W. 315.72
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Tips

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Interactions

Interactions

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