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Tacrolimus

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Overview

What is Tacrolimus?

Tacrolimus USP is available for oral administration as capsules containing the equivalent of 0.5 mg, 1 mg or 5 mg of anhydrous tacrolimus. Inactive ingredients include croscarmellose sodium, lactose monohydrate and magnesium stearate. The 0.5 mg capsule shell contains gelatin, iron oxide red, iron oxide yellow and titanium dioxide, the 1 mg capsule shell contains gelatin and titanium dioxide and the 5 mg capsule shell contains gelatin, iron oxide red, iron oxide black, and titanium dioxide.

Tacrolimus USP, previously known as FK506, is the active ingredient in tacrolimus capsules USP. Tacrolimus USP is a macrolide immunosuppressant produced by . Chemically, tacrolimus USP is designated as [3 -[3 [ (1 ,3 ,4 )], 4 ,5 ,8 ,9 ,12 ,14 ,15 ,16 ,18 ,19 ,26a ]] -5,6,8,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,24,25,26,26a-hexadecahydro-5,19-dihydroxy-3-[2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxycyclohexyl)-1-methylethenyl]-14,16-dimethoxy-4,10,12,18-tetramethyl-8-(2-propenyl)-15,19-epoxy-3H-pyrido[2,1-c][1,4]oxaazacyclotricosine-1,7,20,21(4H,23H)-tetrone, monohydrate.

The chemical structure of tacrolimus is:

Tacrolimus USP has an empirical formula of C H NO •H O and a formula weight of 822.03. Tacrolimus USP appears as white to off white granular powder. It is practically insoluble in water, freely soluble in methanol, ethanol, acetone, ethyl acetate, chloroform.

Tacrolimus Capsules meets USP Organic Impurities Test



What does Tacrolimus look like?



What are the available doses of Tacrolimus?

Tacrolimus Capsules USP, 0.5 mg are white to off white powder filled in hard gelatin capsule of size ‘4’, dark yellow opaque cap imprinted with ‘0.5 MG’ and dark yellow opaque body imprinted with ‘RDY 525’using red ink.

Tacrolimus Capsules USP, 1 mg are white to off white powder filled in hard gelatin capsule of size ‘4’, white opaque cap imprinted with ‘1 MG’ and white opaque body imprinted with ‘RDY 526’using red ink.

Tacrolimus Capsules USP, 5 mg are white to off white powder filled in hard gelatin capsule of size ‘4’, dark grayish red opaque cap imprinted with ‘5 MG’ and dark grayish red  opaque body imprinted with ‘RDY 527’ using white ink.

What should I talk to my health care provider before I take Tacrolimus?

How should I use Tacrolimus?

Tacrolimus capsules are indicated for the prophylaxis of organ rejection in patients receiving allogeneic kidney transplants. It is recommended that tacrolimus capsules be used concomitantly with azathioprine or mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and adrenal corticosteroids [see ]. Therapeutic drug monitoring is recommended for all patients receiving tacrolimus capsules [see ].

The initial oral dosage recommendations for adult patients with kidney, liver, or heart transplants along with recommendations for whole blood trough concentrations are shown in Table 1. The initial dose of tacrolimus capsules should be administered no sooner than 6 hours after transplantation in the liver and heart transplant patients. In kidney transplant patients, the initial dose of tacrolimus capsules may be administered within 24 hours of transplantation, but should be delayed until renal function has recovered. For blood concentration monitoring details see

Table 1. Summary of Initial Oral Dosage Recommendations and Observed Whole Blood Trough Concentrations in Adults

Dosing should be titrated based on clinical assessments of rejection and tolerability. Lower tacrolimus capsule dosages than the recommended initial dosage may be sufficient as maintenance therapy. Adjunct therapy with adrenal corticosteroids is recommended early post-transplant. The data in kidney transplant patients indicate that the Black patients required a higher dose to attain comparable trough concentrations compared to Caucasian patients (Table 2).

Table 2. Comparative Dose and Trough Concentrations Based on Race

Initial Dose – Injection Tacrolimus injection should be used only as a continuous IV infusion and when the patient cannot tolerate oral administration of tacrolimus capsules. Tacrolimus injection should be discontinued as soon as the patient can tolerate oral administration of tacrolimus capsules, usually within 2 to 3 days. In a patient receiving an IV infusion, the first dose of oral therapy should be given 8 to 12 hours after discontinuing the IV infusion.

The observed trough concentrations described above pertain to oral administration of tacrolimus only; while monitoring tacrolimus concentrations in patients receiving tacrolimus injection as a continuous IV infusion may have some utility, the observed concentrations will not represent comparable exposures to those estimated by the trough concentrations observed in patients on oral therapy.

The recommended starting dose of tacrolimus injection is 0.03 to 0.05 mg/kg/day in kidney and liver transplant and 0.01 mg/kg/day in heart transplant given as a continuous IV infusion. Adult patients should receive doses at the lower end of the dosing range. Concomitant adrenal corticosteroid therapy is recommended early post-transplantation.

Anaphylactic reactions have occurred with injectables containing castor oil derivatives, such as tacrolimus injection [see ].


What interacts with Tacrolimus?

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What are the warnings of Tacrolimus?

Sorry No Records found


What are the precautions of Tacrolimus?

Sorry No Records found


What are the side effects of Tacrolimus?

Sorry No records found


What should I look out for while using Tacrolimus?

Tacrolimus is contraindicated in patients with a hypersensitivity to tacrolimus. Tacrolimus injection is contraindicated in patients with a hypersensitivity to HCO-60 (polyoxyl 60 hydrogenated castor oil). Hypersensitivity symptoms reported include dyspnea, rash, pruritus, and acute respiratory distress syndrome [see ].

BOXED WARNING – MALIGNANCIES AND SERIOUS INFECTIONS


What might happen if I take too much Tacrolimus?

Limited overdosage experience is available. Acute overdosages of up to 30 times the intended dose have been reported. Almost all cases have been asymptomatic and all patients recovered with no sequelae. Acute overdosage was sometimes followed by adverse reactions consistent with those listed in Adverse Reactions (including tremors, abnormal renal function, hypertension, and peripheral edema); in one case of acute overdosage, transient urticaria and lethargy were observed. Based on the poor aqueous solubility and extensive erythrocyte and plasma protein binding, it is anticipated that tacrolimus is not dialyzable to any significant extent; there is no experience with charcoal hemoperfusion. The oral use of activated charcoal has been reported in treating acute overdoses, but experience has not been sufficient to warrant recommending its use. General supportive measures and treatment of specific symptoms should be followed in all cases of overdosage.

In acute oral and IV toxicity studies, mortalities were seen at or above the following doses: in adult rats, 52 times the recommended human oral dose; in immature rats, 16 times the recommended oral dose; and in adult rats, 16 times the recommended human IV dose (all based on body surface area corrections).


How should I store and handle Tacrolimus?

Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15° to 30°C (59° to 86°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Keep tightly closed (protect from moisture). Protect from light. Colistimethate for injection is supplied in vials containing colistimethate sodium (equivalent to 150 mg Colistin Base per vial) as a white to slightly yellow lyophilized cake and is available as one vial per carton.NDC 0574-0858-01Colistimethate for injection is supplied in vials containing colistimethate sodium (equivalent to 150 mg Colistin Base per vial) as a white to slightly yellow lyophilized cake and is available as one vial per carton.NDC 0574-0858-01


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Clinical Information

Chemical Structure

No Image found
Clinical Pharmacology

Tacrolimus inhibits T-lymphocyte activation, although the exact mechanism of action is not known. Experimental evidence suggests that tacrolimus binds to an intracellular protein, FKBP-12. A complex of tacrolimus-FKBP-12, calcium, calmodulin, and calcineurin is then formed and the phosphatase activity of calcineurin inhibited. This effect may prevent the dephosphorylation and translocation of nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NF-AT), a nuclear component thought to initiate gene transcription for the formation of lymphokines (such as interleukin-2, gamma interferon). The net result is the inhibition of T-lymphocyte activation (i.e., immunosuppression).

Tacrolimus prolongs the survival of the host and transplanted graft in animal transplant models of liver, kidney, heart, bone marrow, small bowel and pancreas, lung and trachea, skin, cornea, and limb.

In animals, tacrolimus has been demonstrated to suppress some humoral immunity and, to a greater extent, cell-mediated reactions such as allograft rejection, delayed type hypersensitivity, collagen-induced arthritis, experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, and graft versus host disease.

Non-Clinical Toxicology
Tacrolimus is contraindicated in patients with a hypersensitivity to tacrolimus. Tacrolimus injection is contraindicated in patients with a hypersensitivity to HCO-60 (polyoxyl 60 hydrogenated castor oil). Hypersensitivity symptoms reported include dyspnea, rash, pruritus, and acute respiratory distress syndrome [see ].

BOXED WARNING – MALIGNANCIES AND SERIOUS INFECTIONS

Certain other antibiotics (aminoglycosides and polymyxin) have also been reported to interfere with the nerve transmission at the neuromuscular junction. Based on this reported activity, they should not be given concomitantly with colistimethate for injection except with the greatest caution.

Curariform muscle relaxants (e.g., tubocurarine) and other drugs, including ether, succinylcholine, gallamine, decamethonium and sodium citrate, potentiate the neuromuscular blocking effect and should be used with extreme caution in patients being treated with colistimethate for injection.

Sodium cephalothin may enhance the nephrotoxicity of colistimethate for injection. The concomitant use of sodium cephalothin and colistimethate for injection should be avoided.

Only physicians experienced in immunosuppressive therapy and management of organ transplant patients should use tacrolimus. Patients receiving the drug should be managed in facilities equipped and staffed with adequate laboratory and supportive medical resources. The physicians responsible for maintenance therapy should have complete information requisite for the follow up of the patient [see ].

The following serious and otherwise important adverse drug reactions are discussed in greater detail in other sections of labeling:

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Reference

This information is obtained from the National Institute of Health's Standard Packaging Label drug database.
"https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/"

While we update our database periodically, we cannot guarantee it is always updated to the latest version.

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Professional

Clonazepam Description Each single-scored tablet, for oral administration, contains 0.5 mg, 1 mg, or 2 mg Clonazepam, USP, a benzodiazepine. Each tablet also contains corn starch, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and povidone. Clonazepam tablets USP 0.5 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake. Clonazepam tablets USP 1 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake, as well as FD&C Blue No. 1 Aluminum Lake. Chemically, Clonazepam, USP is 5-(o-chlorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-7-nitro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one. It is a light yellow crystalline powder. It has the following structural formula: C15H10ClN3O3 M.W. 315.72
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Tips

Tips

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Interactions

Interactions

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