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Triple Antibiotic

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Overview

What is Triple Antibiotic?

Neomycin and Polymyxin B Sulfates and Bacitracin Zinc Ophthalmic Ointment USP is a sterile antimicrobial ointment for ophthalmic use.

Each Gram Contains:

ACTIVES: Neomycin Sulfate (equivalent to 3.5 mg neomycin base), Polymyxin B Sulfate equivalent to 10,000 polymyxin B units, and Bacitracin Zinc equivalent to 400 bacitracin units; INACTIVES: White Petrolatum, Mineral Oil.

Neomycin sulfate is the sulfate salt of neomycin B and C, which are produced by the growth of Waksman (Fam. Streptomycetaceae). It has a potency equivalent of not less than 600 micrograms of neomycin standard per milligram, calculated on an anhydrous basis. The structural formulae are:

Polymyxin B sulfate is the sulfate salt of polymyxin B and B which are produced by the growth of (Prazmowski) Migula (Fam. Bacillaceae). It has a potency of not less than 6,000 polymyxin B units per milligram, calculated on an anhydrous basis.

The structural formulae are:

Bacitracin zinc is the zinc salt of bacitracin, a mixture of related cyclic polypeptides (mainly bacitracin A) produced by the growth of an organism of the group of var Tracy. It has a potency of not less than 40 bacitracin units per milligram.

The structural formula for bacitracin A is:



What does Triple Antibiotic look like?



What are the available doses of Triple Antibiotic?

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What should I talk to my health care provider before I take Triple Antibiotic?

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How should I use Triple Antibiotic?

Neomycin and polymyxin B sulfates and bacitracin zinc ophthalmic ointment is indicated for the topical treatment of superficial infections of the external eye and its adnexa caused by susceptible bacteria. Such infections encompass conjunctivitis, keratitis and keratoconjunctivitis, blepharitis and blepharoconjunctivitis.

Apply the ointment every 3 or 4 hours for 7 to 10 days, depending on the severity of the infection.


What interacts with Triple Antibiotic?

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What are the warnings of Triple Antibiotic?

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What are the precautions of Triple Antibiotic?

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What are the side effects of Triple Antibiotic?

Adverse reactions have occurred with the anti-infective components of neomycin and polymyxin B sulfates and bacitracin zinc ophthalmic ointment. The exact incidence is not known. Reactions occurring most often are allergic sensitization reactions including itching, swelling, and conjunctival erythema (see ). More serious hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylaxis, have been reported rarely.

Local irritation on instillation has also been reported.


What should I look out for while using Triple Antibiotic?

Neomycin and polymyxin B sulfates and bacitracin zinc ophthalmic ointment is contraindicated in those individuals who have shown hypersensitivity to any of its components.

NOT FOR INJECTION INTO THE EYE.

Neomycin and polymyxin B sulfates and bacitracin zinc ophthalmic ointment should never be directly introduced into the anterior chamber of the eye. Ophthalmic ointments may retard corneal wound healing.

Topical antibiotics, particularly neomycin sulfate, may cause cutaneous sensitization. A precise incidence of hypersensitivity reactions (primarily skin rash) due to topical antibiotics is not known. The manifestations of sensitization to topical antibiotics are usually itching, reddening, and edema of the conjunctiva and eyelid. A sensitization reaction may manifest simply as a failure to heal. During long-term use of topical antibiotic products, periodic examination for such signs is advisable, and the patient should be told to discontinue the product if they are observed. Symptoms usually subside quickly on withdrawing the medication. Application of products containing these ingredients should be avoided for the patient thereafter (see ).


What might happen if I take too much Triple Antibiotic?

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How should I store and handle Triple Antibiotic?

Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F); excursions permitted to 15° to 30°C (59° to 86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Preserve in tight, light-resistant containers.Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F); excursions permitted to 15° to 30°C (59° to 86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Preserve in tight, light-resistant containers.Neomycin and Polymyxin B Sulfates and Bacitracin Zinc Ophthalmic Ointment USP is supplied in a 3.5 g tube with an ophthalmic tip.Prod. No. 03534DO NOT USE IF CAP AND NECKRING ARE NOT INTACT.FOR OPHTHALMIC USE ONLYNeomycin and Polymyxin B Sulfates and Bacitracin Zinc Ophthalmic Ointment USP is supplied in a 3.5 g tube with an ophthalmic tip.Prod. No. 03534DO NOT USE IF CAP AND NECKRING ARE NOT INTACT.FOR OPHTHALMIC USE ONLYNeomycin and Polymyxin B Sulfates and Bacitracin Zinc Ophthalmic Ointment USP is supplied in a 3.5 g tube with an ophthalmic tip.Prod. No. 03534DO NOT USE IF CAP AND NECKRING ARE NOT INTACT.FOR OPHTHALMIC USE ONLYNeomycin and Polymyxin B Sulfates and Bacitracin Zinc Ophthalmic Ointment USP is supplied in a 3.5 g tube with an ophthalmic tip.Prod. No. 03534DO NOT USE IF CAP AND NECKRING ARE NOT INTACT.FOR OPHTHALMIC USE ONLY


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Clinical Information

Chemical Structure

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Clinical Pharmacology

A wide range of antibacterial action is provided by the overlapping spectra of neomycin, polymyxin B sulfate, and bacitracin.

Neomycin is bactericidal for many gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. It is an aminoglycoside antibiotic which inhibits protein synthesis by binding with ribosomal RNA and causing misreading of the bacterial genetic code.

Polymyxin B is bactericidal for a variety of gram-negative organisms. It increases the permeability of the bacterial cell membrane by interacting with the phospholipid components of the membrane.

Bacitracin is bactericidal for a variety of gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. It interferes with bacterial cell wall synthesis by inhibition of the regeneration of phospholipid receptors involved in peptidoglycan synthesis.

Staphylococcus aureus

Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenzae, Klebsiella-Enterobacter

Neisseria

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Serratia marcescens

Non-Clinical Toxicology
Neomycin and polymyxin B sulfates and bacitracin zinc ophthalmic ointment is contraindicated in those individuals who have shown hypersensitivity to any of its components.

NOT FOR INJECTION INTO THE EYE.

Neomycin and polymyxin B sulfates and bacitracin zinc ophthalmic ointment should never be directly introduced into the anterior chamber of the eye. Ophthalmic ointments may retard corneal wound healing.

Topical antibiotics, particularly neomycin sulfate, may cause cutaneous sensitization. A precise incidence of hypersensitivity reactions (primarily skin rash) due to topical antibiotics is not known. The manifestations of sensitization to topical antibiotics are usually itching, reddening, and edema of the conjunctiva and eyelid. A sensitization reaction may manifest simply as a failure to heal. During long-term use of topical antibiotic products, periodic examination for such signs is advisable, and the patient should be told to discontinue the product if they are observed. Symptoms usually subside quickly on withdrawing the medication. Application of products containing these ingredients should be avoided for the patient thereafter (see ).

Immunosuppressive Drugs, Gemfibrozil, Niacin (Nicotinic Acid), Erythromycin:See .

Cytochrome P450 3A4 Inhibitors and data indicate that pravastatin is not metabolized by cytochrome P450 3A4 to a clinically significant extent. This has been shown in studies with known cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitors (see and below). Other examples of cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitors include ketoconazole, mibefradil, and erythromycin.

Diltiazem: Steady-state levels of diltiazem (a known, weak inhibitor of P450 3A4) had no effect on the pharmacokinetics of pravastatin. In this study, the AUC and C of another HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor which is known to be metabolized by cytochrome P450 3A4 increased by factors of 3.6 and 4.3, respectively.

Itraconazole: The mean AUC and C for pravastatin were increased by factors of 1.7 and 2.5, respectively, when given with itraconazole (a potent P450 3A4 inhibitor which also inhibits p-glycoprotein transport) as compared to placebo. The mean t½ was not affected by itraconazole, suggesting that the relatively small increases in C and AUC were due solely to increased bioavailability rather than a decrease in clearance, consistent with inhibition of p-glycoprotein transport by itraconazole. This drug transport system is thought to affect bioavailability and excretion of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, including pravastatin. The AUC and C of another HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor which is known to be metabolized by cytochrome P450 3A4 increased by factors of 19 and 17, respectively, when given with itraconazole.

Antipyrine:Since concomitant administration of pravastatin had no effect on the clearance of antipyrine, interactions with other drugs metabolized via the same hepatic cytochrome isozymes are not expected.

Cholestyramine/Colestipol:Concomitant administration resulted in an approximately 40 to 50% decrease in the mean AUC of pravastatin. However, when pravastatin was administered 1 hour before or 4 hours after cholestyramine or 1 hour before colestipol and a standard meal, there was no clinically significant decrease in bioavailability or therapeutic effect. (See .)

Warfarin:Concomitant administration of 40 mg pravastatin had no clinically significant effect on prothrombin time when administered in a study to normal elderly subjects who were stabilized on warfarin.

Cimetidine:The AUC for pravastatin when given with cimetidine was not significantly different from the AUC for pravastatin when given alone. A significant difference was observed between the AUC’s for pravastatin when given with cimetidine compared to when administered with antacid.

Digoxin:In a crossover trial involving 18 healthy male subjects given 20 mg pravastatin and           0.2 mg digoxin concurrently for 9 days, the bioavailability parameters of digoxin were not affected. The AUC of pravastatin tended to increase, but the overall bioavailability of pravastatin plus its metabolites SQ 31,906 and SQ 31,945 was not altered.

Cyclosporine:Some investigators have measured cyclosporine levels in patients on pravastatin (up to 20 mg), and to date, these results indicate no clinically meaningful elevations in cyclosporine levels. In one single-dose study, pravastatin levels were found to be increased in cardiac transplant patients receiving cyclosporine.

Gemfibrozil:In a crossover study in 20 healthy male volunteers given concomitant single doses of pravastatin and gemfibrozil, there was a significant decrease in urinary excretion and protein binding of pravastatin. In addition, there was a significant increase in AUC, C, and T for the pravastatin metabolite SQ 31,906. Combination therapy with pravastatin and gemfibrozil is generally not recommended. (See .)

In interaction studies with (1 hour prior to Pravastatin), or , no statistically significant differences in bioavailability were seen when pravastatin sodium was administered.

Endocrine Function

HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors interfere with cholesterol synthesis and lower circulating cholesterol levels and, as such, might theoretically blunt adrenal or gonadal steroid hormone production. Results of clinical trials with pravastatin in males and postmenopausal females were inconsistent with regard to possible effects of the drug on basal steroid hormone levels. In a study of 21 males, the mean testosterone response to human chorionic gonadotropin was significantly reduced (p
In a placebo-controlled study of 214 pediatric patients with HeFH, of which 106 were treated with pravastatin (20 mg in the children aged 8-13 years and 40 mg in the adolescents aged 14-18 years) for two years, there were no detectable differences seen in any of the endocrine parameters [ACTH, cortisol, DHEAS, FSH, LH, TSH, estradiol (girls) or testosterone (boys)] relative to placebo. There were no detectable differences seen in height and weight changes, testicular volume changes, or Tanner score relative to placebo.

CNS Toxicity

CNS vascular lesions, characterized by perivascular hemorrhage and edema and mononuclear cell infiltration of perivascular spaces, were seen in dogs treated with pravastatin at a dose of           25 mg/kg/day. These effects in dogs were observed at approximately 59 times the human dose of 80 mg/day, based on AUC. Similar CNS vascular lesions have been observed with several other drugs in this class.

A chemically similar drug in this class produced optic nerve degeneration (Wallerian degeneration of retinogeniculate fibers) in clinically normal dogs in a dose-dependent fashion starting at 60 mg/kg/day, a dose that produced mean plasma drug levels about 30 times higher than the mean drug level in humans taking the highest recommended dose (as measured by total enzyme inhibitory activity). This same drug also produced vestibulocochlear Wallerian-like degeneration and retinal ganglion cell chromatolysis in dogs treated for 14 weeks at                       180 mg/kg/day, a dose which resulted in a mean plasma drug level similar to that seen with the 60 mg/kg/day dose.

As with other antibiotic preparations, prolonged use of neomycin and polymyxin B sulfates and bacitracin zinc ophthalmic ointment may result in overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms including fungi. If superinfection occurs, appropriate measures should be initiated.

Bacterial resistance to neomycin and polymyxin B sulfates and bacitracin zinc ophthalmic ointment may also develop. If purulent discharge, inflammation, or pain becomes aggravated, the patient should discontinue use of the medication and consult a physician.

There have been reports of bacterial keratitis associated with the use of topical ophthalmic products in multiple-dose containers which have been inadvertently contaminated by patients, most of whom had a concurrent corneal disease or a disruption of the ocular epithelial surface (see ).

Allergic cross-reactions may occur which could prevent the use of any or all of the following antibiotics for the treatment of future infections: kanamycin, paromomycin, streptomycin, and possibly gentamicin.

Adverse reactions have occurred with the anti-infective components of neomycin and polymyxin B sulfates and bacitracin zinc ophthalmic ointment. The exact incidence is not known. Reactions occurring most often are allergic sensitization reactions including itching, swelling, and conjunctival erythema (see ). More serious hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylaxis, have been reported rarely.

Local irritation on instillation has also been reported.

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Reference

This information is obtained from the National Institute of Health's Standard Packaging Label drug database.
"https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/"

While we update our database periodically, we cannot guarantee it is always updated to the latest version.

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Professional

Clonazepam Description Each single-scored tablet, for oral administration, contains 0.5 mg, 1 mg, or 2 mg Clonazepam, USP, a benzodiazepine. Each tablet also contains corn starch, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and povidone. Clonazepam tablets USP 0.5 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake. Clonazepam tablets USP 1 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake, as well as FD&C Blue No. 1 Aluminum Lake. Chemically, Clonazepam, USP is 5-(o-chlorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-7-nitro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one. It is a light yellow crystalline powder. It has the following structural formula: C15H10ClN3O3 M.W. 315.72
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Tips

Tips

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Interactions

Interactions

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