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TYSABRI

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Overview

What is TYSABRI?

Natalizumab is a recombinant humanized IgG4κ monoclonal antibody produced in murine myeloma cells. Natalizumab contains human framework regions and the complementarity-determining regions of a murine antibody that binds to α4-integrin. The molecular weight of natalizumab is 149 kilodaltons.

TYSABRI (natalizumab) injection is supplied as a sterile, colorless, and clear to slightly opalescent solution for intravenous infusion. Each 15 mL of solution contains 300 mg natalizumab; sodium chloride, USP (123 mg); sodium phosphate, monobasic, monohydrate, USP (17mg); sodium phosphate, dibasic, heptahydrate, USP (7.24 mg); polysorbate 80, USP/NF (3 mg), in Water for Injection, USP at pH 6.1.



What does TYSABRI look like?



What are the available doses of TYSABRI?

Injection: 300 mg/15 mL (20 mg/mL) solution in a single-dose vial for dilution prior to infusion ()

What should I talk to my health care provider before I take TYSABRI?

Pregnancy: Based on animal data, may cause fetal harm. ()

How should I use TYSABRI?

TYSABRI is indicated as monotherapy for the treatment of patients with relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis. TYSABRI increases the risk of PML. When initiating and continuing treatment with TYSABRI, physicians should consider whether the expected benefit of TYSABRI is sufficient to offset this risk. See important information regarding the risk of PML with TYSABRI [].

Only prescribers registered in the MS TOUCH Prescribing Program may prescribe TYSABRI for multiple sclerosis []. The recommended dose of TYSABRI for multiple sclerosis is 300 mg intravenous infusion over one hour every four weeks.


What interacts with TYSABRI?

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What are the warnings of TYSABRI?

Sorry No Records found


What are the precautions of TYSABRI?

Sorry No Records found


What are the side effects of TYSABRI?

Sorry No records found


What should I look out for while using TYSABRI?

Patients who have or have had PML ()

Patients who have had a hypersensitivity reaction to TYSABRI (, )

TYSABRI increases the risk of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), an opportunistic viral infection of the brain that usually leads to death or severe disability. Risk factors for the development of PML include duration of therapy, prior use of immunosuppressants, and presence of anti-JCV antibodies. These factors should be considered in the context of expected benefit when initiating and continuing treatment with TYSABRI [

see Warnings and Precautions ()

].


What might happen if I take too much TYSABRI?

Safety of doses higher than 300 mg has not been adequately evaluated. The maximum amount of TYSABRI that can be safely administered has not been determined.


How should I store and handle TYSABRI?

Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].Preserve in tight, light-resistant containers as defined in the USP.Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].Preserve in tight, light-resistant containers as defined in the USP.TYSABRI (natalizumab) injection, a sterile, preservative-free, colorless and clear to slightly opalescent solution for dilution prior to intravenous infusion, is supplied as one 300 mg/15 mL (20 mg/mL) single-dose vial per carton (NDC 64406-008-01). TYSABRI is available only through registered infusion centers participating in the TOUCH Prescribing Program. To locate these infusion centers, contact Biogen at 1-800-456-2255. TYSABRI single-dose vials must be refrigerated between 2°C to 8°C (36°F to 46°F). Do not use beyond the expiration date stamped on the carton and vial label. DO NOT SHAKE OR FREEZE. Protect from light. Store diluted TYSABRI solution refrigerated at 2°C to 8°C (36°F to 46°F) [] TYSABRI (natalizumab) injection, a sterile, preservative-free, colorless and clear to slightly opalescent solution for dilution prior to intravenous infusion, is supplied as one 300 mg/15 mL (20 mg/mL) single-dose vial per carton (NDC 64406-008-01). TYSABRI is available only through registered infusion centers participating in the TOUCH Prescribing Program. To locate these infusion centers, contact Biogen at 1-800-456-2255. TYSABRI single-dose vials must be refrigerated between 2°C to 8°C (36°F to 46°F). Do not use beyond the expiration date stamped on the carton and vial label. DO NOT SHAKE OR FREEZE. Protect from light. Store diluted TYSABRI solution refrigerated at 2°C to 8°C (36°F to 46°F) [] TYSABRI (natalizumab) injection, a sterile, preservative-free, colorless and clear to slightly opalescent solution for dilution prior to intravenous infusion, is supplied as one 300 mg/15 mL (20 mg/mL) single-dose vial per carton (NDC 64406-008-01). TYSABRI is available only through registered infusion centers participating in the TOUCH Prescribing Program. To locate these infusion centers, contact Biogen at 1-800-456-2255. TYSABRI single-dose vials must be refrigerated between 2°C to 8°C (36°F to 46°F). Do not use beyond the expiration date stamped on the carton and vial label. DO NOT SHAKE OR FREEZE. Protect from light. Store diluted TYSABRI solution refrigerated at 2°C to 8°C (36°F to 46°F) [] TYSABRI (natalizumab) injection, a sterile, preservative-free, colorless and clear to slightly opalescent solution for dilution prior to intravenous infusion, is supplied as one 300 mg/15 mL (20 mg/mL) single-dose vial per carton (NDC 64406-008-01). TYSABRI is available only through registered infusion centers participating in the TOUCH Prescribing Program. To locate these infusion centers, contact Biogen at 1-800-456-2255. TYSABRI single-dose vials must be refrigerated between 2°C to 8°C (36°F to 46°F). Do not use beyond the expiration date stamped on the carton and vial label. DO NOT SHAKE OR FREEZE. Protect from light. Store diluted TYSABRI solution refrigerated at 2°C to 8°C (36°F to 46°F) []


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Clinical Information

Chemical Structure

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Clinical Pharmacology

Natalizumab binds to the α4-subunit of α4β1 and α4β7 integrins expressed on the surface of all leukocytes except neutrophils, and inhibits the α4-mediated adhesion of leukocytes to their counter-receptor(s). The receptors for the α4 family of integrins include vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), which is expressed on activated vascular endothelium, and mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1) present on vascular endothelial cells of the gastrointestinal tract. Disruption of these molecular interactions prevents transmigration of leukocytes across the endothelium into inflamed parenchymal tissue. , anti-α4-integrin antibodies also block α4-mediated cell binding to ligands such as osteopontin and an alternatively spliced domain of fibronectin, connecting segment-1 (CS-1). , natalizumab may further act to inhibit the interaction of α4-expressing leukocytes with their ligand(s) in the extracellular matrix and on parenchymal cells, thereby inhibiting further recruitment and inflammatory activity of activated immune cells.

The specific mechanism(s) by which TYSABRI exerts its effects in multiple sclerosis and Crohn's disease have not been fully defined.

In multiple sclerosis, lesions are believed to occur when activated inflammatory cells, including T-lymphocytes, cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Leukocyte migration across the BBB involves interaction between adhesion molecules on inflammatory cells and their counter-receptors present on endothelial cells of the vessel wall. The clinical effect of natalizumab in multiple sclerosis may be secondary to blockade of the molecular interaction of α4β1-integrin expressed by inflammatory cells with VCAM-1 on vascular endothelial cells, and with CS-1 and/or osteopontin expressed by parenchymal cells in the brain. Data from an experimental autoimmune encephalitis animal model of multiple sclerosis demonstrate reduction of leukocyte migration into brain parenchyma and reduction of plaque formation detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) following repeated administration of natalizumab. The clinical significance of these animal data is unknown.

In Crohn's disease, the interaction of the α4β7 integrin with the endothelial receptor MAdCAM-1 has been implicated as an important contributor to the chronic inflammation that is a hallmark of the disease. MAdCAM-1 is mainly expressed on gut endothelial cells and plays a critical role in the homing of T lymphocytes to gut lymph tissue found in Peyer's patches. MAdCAM-1 expression has been found to be increased at active sites of inflammation in patients with CD, which suggests it may play a role in the recruitment of leukocytes to the mucosa and contribute to the inflammatory response characteristic of CD. The clinical effect of natalizumab in CD may therefore be secondary to blockade of the molecular interaction of the α4ß7-integrin receptor with MAdCAM-1 expressed on the venular endothelium at inflammatory foci. VCAM-1 expression has been found to be upregulated on colonic endothelial cells in a mouse model of IBD and appears to play a role in leukocyte recruitment to sites of inflammation. The role of VCAM-1 in CD, however, is not clear.

Non-Clinical Toxicology
Patients who have or have had PML ()

Patients who have had a hypersensitivity reaction to TYSABRI (, )

TYSABRI increases the risk of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), an opportunistic viral infection of the brain that usually leads to death or severe disability. Risk factors for the development of PML include duration of therapy, prior use of immunosuppressants, and presence of anti-JCV antibodies. These factors should be considered in the context of expected benefit when initiating and continuing treatment with TYSABRI [

see Warnings and Precautions ()

].

Because tetracyclines have been shown to depress plasma prothrombin activity, patients who are on anticoagulant therapy may require downward adjustment of their anticoagulant dosage.

Since bacteriostatic drugs may interfere with the bactericidal action of penicillin, it is advisable to avoid giving tetracyclines in conjunction with penicillin.

Absorption of tetracyclines is impaired by antacids containing aluminum, calcium, or magnesium, and iron-containing preparations.

Barbiturates, carbamazepine, and phenytoin decrease the half-life of doxycycline.

The concurrent use of tetracycline and methoxyflurane has been reported to result in fatal renal toxicity.

Concurrent use of tetracycline may render oral contraceptives less effective.

Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), an opportunistic viral infection of the brain caused by the JC virus (JCV) that typically only occurs in patients who are immunocompromised, and that usually leads to death or severe disability, has occurred in patients who have received TYSABRI.

Three factors that are known to increase the risk of PML in TYSABRI-treated patients have been identified:

These factors should be considered in the context of expected benefit when initiating and continuing treatment with TYSABRI.

Ordinarily, patients receiving chronic immunosuppressant or immunomodulatory therapy or who have systemic medical conditions resulting in significantly compromised immune system function should not be treated with TYSABRI. Infection by the JC virus is required for the development of PML. Anti-JCV antibody testing should not be used to diagnose PML. Anti-JCV antibody negative status indicates that antibodies to the JC virus have not been detected. Patients who are anti-JCV antibody negative have a lower risk of PML than those who are positive. Patients who are anti-JCV antibody negative are still at risk for the development of PML due to the potential for a new JCV infection or a false negative test result. The reported rate of seroconversion in patients with MS (changing from anti-JCV antibody negative to positive and remaining positive in subsequent testing) is 3 to 8 percent annually. In addition, some patients' serostatus may change intermittently. Therefore, patients with a negative anti-JCV antibody test result should be retested periodically. For purposes of risk assessment, a patient with a positive anti-JCV antibody test at any time is considered anti-JCV antibody positive regardless of the results of any prior or subsequent anti-JCV antibody testing. When assessed, anti-JCV antibody status should be determined using an analytically and clinically validated immunoassay. After plasma exchange, wait at least two weeks to test for anti-JCV antibodies to avoid false negative test results caused by the removal of serum antibodies. After infusion of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg), wait at least 6 months (5 half-lives) for the IVIg to clear in order to avoid false positive anti-JCV antibody test results.

Healthcare professionals should monitor patients on TYSABRI for any new sign or symptom suggestive of PML. Symptoms associated with PML are diverse, progress over days to weeks, and include progressive weakness on one side of the body or clumsiness of limbs, disturbance of vision, and changes in thinking, memory, and orientation leading to confusion and personality changes. The progression of deficits usually leads to death or severe disability over weeks or months. Withhold TYSABRI dosing immediately and perform an appropriate diagnostic evaluation at the first sign or symptom suggestive of PML.

There are no known interventions that can reliably prevent PML or that can adequately treat PML if it occurs. PML has been reported following discontinuation of TYSABRI in patients who did not have findings suggestive of PML at the time of discontinuation. Patients should continue to be monitored for any new signs or symptoms that may be suggestive of PML for at least six months following discontinuation of TYSABRI.

Because of the risk of PML, TYSABRI is available only under a restricted distribution program, the TOUCH Prescribing Program.

In multiple sclerosis patients, an MRI scan should be obtained prior to initiating therapy with TYSABRI. This MRI may be helpful in differentiating subsequent multiple sclerosis symptoms from PML.

In Crohn's disease patients, a baseline brain MRI may also be helpful to distinguish pre-existent lesions from newly developed lesions, but brain lesions at baseline that could cause diagnostic difficulty while on TYSABRI therapy are uncommon.

For diagnosis of PML, an evaluation including a gadolinium-enhanced MRI scan of the brain and, when indicated, cerebrospinal fluid analysis for JC viral DNA are recommended. If the initial evaluations for PML are negative but clinical suspicion for PML remains, continue to withhold TYSABRI dosing, and repeat the evaluations.

Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) has been reported in the majority of TYSABRI treated patients who developed PML and subsequently discontinued TYSABRI. In almost all cases, IRIS occurred after plasma exchange was used to eliminate circulating TYSABRI. It presents as a clinical decline in the patient's condition after TYSABRI removal (and in some cases after apparent clinical improvement) that may be rapid, can lead to serious neurological complications or death, and is often associated with characteristic changes in the MRI. TYSABRI has not been associated with IRIS in patients discontinuing treatment with TYSABRI for reasons unrelated to PML. In TYSABRI treated patients with PML, IRIS has been reported within days to several weeks after plasma exchange. Monitoring for development of IRIS and appropriate treatment of the associated inflammation should be undertaken.

The following serious adverse reactions are described below and elsewhere in the labeling:

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Reference

This information is obtained from the National Institute of Health's Standard Packaging Label drug database.
"https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/"

While we update our database periodically, we cannot guarantee it is always updated to the latest version.

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Professional

Clonazepam Description Each single-scored tablet, for oral administration, contains 0.5 mg, 1 mg, or 2 mg Clonazepam, USP, a benzodiazepine. Each tablet also contains corn starch, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and povidone. Clonazepam tablets USP 0.5 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake. Clonazepam tablets USP 1 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake, as well as FD&C Blue No. 1 Aluminum Lake. Chemically, Clonazepam, USP is 5-(o-chlorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-7-nitro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one. It is a light yellow crystalline powder. It has the following structural formula: C15H10ClN3O3 M.W. 315.72
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Tips

Tips

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Interactions

Interactions

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