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Vancomycin

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Overview

What is Vancomycin?

Vancomycin Hydrochloride for Injection, USP is a lyophilized powder, for preparing intravenous (IV) infusions, in Pharmacy Bulk Package bottles containing the equivalent of 5 grams or 10 grams vancomycin base. 500 mg of the base are equivalent to 0.34 mmol. When reconstituted with Sterile Water for Injection to a concentration of 50 mg per mL for the 5 gram Pharmacy Bulk Package bottle and 100 mg per mL for the 10 gram Pharmacy Bulk Package bottle, the pH of the solution is between 2.5 and 4.5. Vancomycin Hydrochloride for Injection, USP should be administered intravenously in diluted solution (see ).

Vancomycin Hydrochloride for Injection, USP is a tricyclic glycopeptide antibiotic derived from (formerly ). The chemical name for vancomycin hydrochloride is ( )-(,,,)-44-[[2--(3-Amino- 2,3,6-trideoxy-3--methyl-α-L--hexopyranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranosyl]oxy]-3-(carbamoylmethyl)-10,19-dichloro-2,3,4,5,6,7,23,24,25,26,36,37,38,38a-tetradecahydro- 7,22,28,30,32-pentahydroxy-6-[()-4-methyl-2-(methylamino)]valeramido]-2,5,24,38,39-pentaoxo--8,11:18,21-dietheno-23,36-(iminomethano)-13,16:31,35-dimetheno-,-[1,6,9]oxadiazacyclohexadecino[4,5-][10,2,16]benzoxadiazacyclotetracosine-26-carboxylic acid, monohydrochloride. The molecular formula is CHClNO•HCl and the molecular weight is 1,485.73.

Vancomycin hydrochloride has the following structural formula:

A is a container of a sterile preparation for parenteral use that contains many single doses. The contents of this pharmacy bulk package are intended for use by a pharmacy admixture service for addition to suitable parenteral fluids in the preparation of admixtures for intravenous infusion (see ).



What does Vancomycin look like?



What are the available doses of Vancomycin?

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What should I talk to my health care provider before I take Vancomycin?

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How should I use Vancomycin?

Vancomycin Hydrochloride for Injection, USP is indicated for the treatment of serious or severe infections caused by susceptible strains of methicillin-resistant (β-lactam-resistant) staphylococci. It is indicated for penicillin-allergic patients, for patients who cannot receive or who have failed to respond to other drugs, including the penicillins or cephalosporins, and for infections caused by vancomycin-susceptible organisms that are resistant to other antimicrobial drugs. Vancomycin Hydrochloride for Injection, USP is indicated for initial therapy when methicillin-resistant staphylococci are suspected, but after susceptibility data are available, therapy should be adjusted accordingly.

Vancomycin Hydrochloride for Injection, USP is effective in the treatment of staphylococcal endocarditis. Its effectiveness has been documented in other infections due to staphylococci, including septicemia, bone infections, lower respiratory tract infections, skin and skin structure infections. When staphylococcal infections are localized and purulent, antibiotics are used as adjuncts to appropriate surgical measures.

Vancomycin Hydrochloride for Injection, USP has been reported to be effective alone or in combination with an aminoglycoside for endocarditis caused by or . For endocarditis caused by enterococci (e.g., ), Vancomycin Hydrochloride for Injection, USP has been reported to be effective only in combination with an aminoglycoside.

Vancomycin Hydrochloride for Injection, USP has been reported to be effective for the treatment of diphtheroid endocarditis. Vancomycin Hydrochloride for Injection, USP has been used successfully in combination with either rifampin, an aminoglycoside, or both in early-onset prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by or diphtheroids.

Specimens for bacteriologic cultures should be obtained in order to isolate and identify causative organisms and to determine their susceptibilities to vancomycin hydrochloride.

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Vancomycin Hydrochloride for Injection, USP and other antibacterial drugs, Vancomycin Hydrochloride for Injection, USP should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

The parenteral form of Vancomycin Hydrochloride for Injection, USP may be administered orally for treatment of antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis produced by and for staphylococcal enterocolitis. Parenteral administration of vancomycin hydrochloride alone is of unproven benefit for these indications.

The intent of the pharmacy bulk package for this product is for preparation of solutions for IV infusion only.

Infusion-related events are related to both the concentration and the rate of administration of vancomycin. Concentrations of no more than 5 mg per mL and rates of no more than 10 mg/min, are recommended in adults (see also age-specific recommendations). In selected patients in need of fluid restriction, a concentration up to 10 mg per mL may be used; use of such higher concentrations may increase the risk of infusion-related events. An infusion rate of 10 mg/min or less is associated with fewer infusion-related events (see ). Infusion-related events may occur, however, at any rate or concentration.


What interacts with Vancomycin?

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What are the warnings of Vancomycin?

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What are the precautions of Vancomycin?

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What are the side effects of Vancomycin?

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What should I look out for while using Vancomycin?

Vancomycin hydrochloride is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to this antibiotic.

Rapid bolus administration (e.g., over several minutes) may be associated with exaggerated hypotension, including shock and rarely cardiac arrest.

Vancomycin hydrochloride should be administered in a diluted solution over a period of not less than 60 minutes to avoid rapid-infusion-related reactions. Stopping the infusion usually results in prompt cessation of these reactions.

Ototoxicity has occurred in patients receiving vancomycin hydrochloride. It may be transient or permanent. It has been reported mostly in patients who have been given excessive doses, who have an underlying hearing loss, or who are receiving concomitant therapy with another ototoxic agent, such as an aminoglycoside. Vancomycin should be used with caution in patients with renal insufficiency because the risk of toxicity is appreciably increased by high, prolonged blood concentrations.

Dosage of vancomycin hydrochloride must be adjusted for patients with renal dysfunction (see and ).

Clostridium difficile

C. difficile

C. difficile

C. difficile

If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of , and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.


What might happen if I take too much Vancomycin?

Supportive care is advised, with maintenance of glomerular filtration. Vancomycin is poorly removed by dialysis. Hemofiltration and hemoperfusion with polysulfone resin have been reported to result in increased vancomycin clearance. The median lethal intravenous dose is 319 mg/kg in rats and 400 mg/kg in mice.

To obtain up-to-date information about the treatment of overdose, a good resource is your certified Regional Poison Control Center. Telephone numbers of certified poison control centers are listed in the Physicians' Desk Reference (PDR). In managing overdosage, consider the possibility of multiple drug overdoses, interaction among drugs, and unusual drug kinetics in your patient.


How should I store and handle Vancomycin?

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Clinical Information

Chemical Structure

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Clinical Pharmacology

The bactericidal action of vancomycin results primarily from inhibition of cell-wall biosynthesis. In addition, vancomycin alters bacterial-cell-membrane permeability and RNA synthesis. There is no cross-resistance between vancomycin and other antibiotics. Vancomycin is not active against gram-negative bacilli, mycobacteria, or fungi.

Non-Clinical Toxicology
Vancomycin hydrochloride is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to this antibiotic.

Rapid bolus administration (e.g., over several minutes) may be associated with exaggerated hypotension, including shock and rarely cardiac arrest.

Vancomycin hydrochloride should be administered in a diluted solution over a period of not less than 60 minutes to avoid rapid-infusion-related reactions. Stopping the infusion usually results in prompt cessation of these reactions.

Ototoxicity has occurred in patients receiving vancomycin hydrochloride. It may be transient or permanent. It has been reported mostly in patients who have been given excessive doses, who have an underlying hearing loss, or who are receiving concomitant therapy with another ototoxic agent, such as an aminoglycoside. Vancomycin should be used with caution in patients with renal insufficiency because the risk of toxicity is appreciably increased by high, prolonged blood concentrations.

Dosage of vancomycin hydrochloride must be adjusted for patients with renal dysfunction (see and ).

Clostridium difficile

C. difficile

C. difficile

C. difficile

If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of , and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.

Concomitant administration of vancomycin and anesthetic agents has been associated with erythema and histamine-like flushing (see under ) and anaphylactoid reactions (see ).

Concurrent and/or sequential systemic or topical use of other potentially, neurotoxic and/or nephrotoxic drugs, such as amphotericin B, aminoglycosides, bacitracin, polymixin B, colistin, viomycin, or cisplatin, when indicated, requires careful monitoring.

Clinically significant serum concentrations have been reported in some patients being treated for active -induced pseudomembranous colitis after multiple oral doses of vancomycin.

Prolonged use of vancomycin hydrochloride may result in the overgrowth of nonsusceptible microorganisms. Careful observation of the patient is essential. If superinfection occurs during therapy, appropriate measures should be taken. In rare instances, there have been reports of pseudomembranous colitis due to developing in patients who received intravenous vancomycin hydrochloride.

In order to minimize the risk of nephrotoxicity when treating patients with underlying renal dysfunction or patients receiving concomitant therapy with an aminoglycoside, serial monitoring of renal function should be performed and particular care should be taken in following appropriate dosing schedules (see ).

Serial tests of auditory function may be helpful in order to minimize the risk of ototoxicity.

Reversible neutropenia has been reported in patients receiving vancomycin hydrochloride (see ). Patients who will undergo prolonged therapy with vancomycin hydrochloride or those who are receiving concomitant drugs which may cause neutropenia should have periodic monitoring of the leukocyte count.

Vancomycin hydrochloride for injection is irritating to tissue and must be given by a secure IV route of administration. Pain, tenderness, and necrosis occur with intramuscular (IM) injection of vancomycin hydrochloride for injection or with inadvertent extravasation. Thrombophlebitis may occur, the frequency and severity of which can be minimized by administering the drug slowly as a dilute solution (2.5 to 5 g/L) and by rotation of venous access sites.

There have been reports that the frequency of infusion-related events (including hypotension, flushing, erythema, urticaria, and pruritus) increases with the concomitant administration of anesthetic agents. Infusion-related events may be minimized by the administration of vancomycin as a 60-minute infusion prior to anesthetic induction. The safety and efficacy of vancomycin administered by the intrathecal (intralumbar or intraventricular) route or by the intraperitoneal route have not been established by adequate and well controlled trials.

Although the safety and efficacy of vancomycin by the intraperitoneal route have not been established, reports have revealed that administration of sterile vancomycin by the intraperitoneal route during continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) has resulted in a syndrome of chemical peritonitis. To date, this syndrome has ranged from cloudy dialysate alone to a cloudy dialysate accompanied by variable degrees of abdominal pain and fever. This syndrome appears to be short-lived after discontinuation of intraperitoneal vancomycin.

Prescribing Vancomycin Hydrochloride for Injection, USP in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.

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Reference

This information is obtained from the National Institute of Health's Standard Packaging Label drug database.
"https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/"

While we update our database periodically, we cannot guarantee it is always updated to the latest version.

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Professional

Clonazepam Description Each single-scored tablet, for oral administration, contains 0.5 mg, 1 mg, or 2 mg Clonazepam, USP, a benzodiazepine. Each tablet also contains corn starch, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and povidone. Clonazepam tablets USP 0.5 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake. Clonazepam tablets USP 1 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake, as well as FD&C Blue No. 1 Aluminum Lake. Chemically, Clonazepam, USP is 5-(o-chlorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-7-nitro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one. It is a light yellow crystalline powder. It has the following structural formula: C15H10ClN3O3 M.W. 315.72
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Interactions

Interactions

A total of 440 drugs (1549 brand and generic names) are known to interact with Imbruvica (ibrutinib). 228 major drug interactions (854 brand and generic names) 210 moderate drug interactions (691 brand and generic names) 2 minor drug interactions (4 brand and generic names) Show all medications in the database that may interact with Imbruvica (ibrutinib).