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Desogestrel and Ethinyl Estradiol

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Overview

What is Velivet?

Velivet (desogestrel and ethinyl estradiol tablets USP) is a triphasic oral contraceptive containing two active components, desogestrel and ethinyl estradiol, USP. Each 28 day treatment cycle pack consists of three active dosing phases: 7 beige tablets containing 0.1 mg desogestrel (13-ethyl-11-methylene-18,19-dinor-17α-pregn-4-en-20-yn-17-ol) and 0.025 mg ethinyl estradiol, USP (19-nor-17α-pregna-1,3,5(10)-trien-20-yne-3, 17-diol); 7 orange tablets containing 0.125 mg desogestrel and 0.025 mg ethinyl estradiol, USP, and 7 pink tablets containing 0.15 mg desogestrel and 0.025 mg ethinyl estradiol, USP. Inactive ingredients include colloidal silicon dioxide, hypromellose, lactose monohydrate, polyethylene glycol, polysorbate 80, povidone, pregelatinized corn starch, stearic acid, titanium dioxide and vitamin E. Beige tablets also contain iron oxide red and iron oxide yellow. Pink and orange tablets also contain FD&C Red No. 40 Aluminum Lake and FD&C Yellow No. 6 Aluminum Lake. Velivet also contains 7 white tablets with the following inert ingredients: lactose anhydrous, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose and pregelatinized corn starch. The structural formulas are as follows:

The 7 beige, 7 pink and 7 orange tablets meet Dissolution Test 2.



What does Velivet look like?



What are the available doses of Velivet?

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What should I talk to my health care provider before I take Velivet?

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How should I use Velivet?

Velivet (desogestrel and ethinyl estradiol tablets) is indicated for the prevention of pregnancy in women who elect to use this product as a method of contraception.

Oral contraceptives are highly effective. lists the typical unintended pregnancy rates for users of combination oral contraceptives and other methods of contraception. The efficacy of these contraceptive methods, except sterilization, the IUD, and implants, depends upon the reliability with which they are used. Correct and consistent use of these methods can result in lower failure rates.

To achieve maximum contraceptive effectiveness, Velivet tablets must be taken exactly as directed, at the same time every day, and at intervals not exceeding 24 hours. Velivet tablets may be initiated using either a Sunday start or a Day 1 start.

NOTE: Seven different "day label strips" are provided to accommodate the selected start regimen. The patient should place the self-adhesive "day label strip" that corresponds to her starting day on the blister card above the first row of tablets.

During the First Cycle of Use

IMPORTANT: The possibility of ovulation and conception prior to initiation of use of Velivet tablets should be considered. A woman can begin to take Velivet tablets either on the first Sunday after the onset of her menstrual period (Sunday Start) or on the first day of her menstrual period (Day 1 Start). When switching from another oral contraceptive, Velivet tablets should be started on the same day that a new pack of the previous oral contraceptive would have been started.

Sunday Start

When initiating a Sunday start regimen, another method of contraception, such as condoms or spermicide, should be used for the first 7 consecutive days of taking Velivet tablets.

Using a Sunday start, tablets are taken daily without interruption as follows: The first beige tablet should be taken on the first Sunday after menstruation begins (if menstruation begins on Sunday, the first beige tablet is taken on that day). Tablets are then taken sequentially following the arrows marked on the dispenser. One beige tablet is taken daily for 7 days, followed by 1 orange tablet daily for 7 days, 1 pink tablet daily for 7 days, and then 1 white (inactive) tablet daily for 7 days. For all subsequent cycles, the patient then begins a new 28 tablet regimen on the next day (Sunday) after taking the last white (inactive) tablet. [If switching from a Sunday Start oral contraceptive, the first Velivet tablet should be taken on the second Sunday after the last tablet of a 21 day oral contraceptive regimen or should be taken on the first Sunday after the last inactive tablet of a 28 day regimen.]

If a patient misses 1 active tablet in Weeks 1, 2, or 3, she should take the missed tablet as soon as she remembers. If the patient misses 2 consecutive active tablets in Week 1 or Week 2, the patient should take 2 tablets the day she remembers and 2 tablets the next day; thereafter, the patient should resume taking 1 tablet daily until she finishes the cycle pack. The patient should be instructed to use a back-up method of birth control (such as condoms or spermicide) if she has intercourse in the 7 days after she restarts her pills. If the patient misses 2 consecutive pink (active) tablets in the third week or misses 3 or more active tablets in a row at any time during the cycle, the patient should keep taking 1 active tablet daily until the next Sunday. On Sunday the patient should throw out the rest of that cycle pack and start a new cycle pack that same day. The patient should be instructed to use a back-up method of birth control if she has intercourse in the 7 days after restarting her pills.

Complete instructions to facilitate patient counseling on proper pill usage can be found in Detailed Patient Labeling ("" section).

Day 1 Start

Counting the first day of menstruation as "Day 1", the first beige tablet should be taken on the first day of menstrual bleeding. Tablets are then taken sequentially without interruption as follows: One beige tablet daily for 7 days, then 1 orange tablet daily for 7 days, followed by 1 pink tablet daily for 7 days and then 1 white (inactive) tablet daily for 7 days. For all subsequent cycles, the patient then begins a new 28 tablet regimen on the next day after taking the last white (inactive) tablet. [If switching directly from another oral contraceptive, the first beige tablet should be taken on the same day that a new pack of the previous oral contraceptive would have been started.]

If a patient misses 1 active tablet in Weeks 1, 2, or 3, she should take the missed tablet as soon as she remembers. If the patient misses 2 consecutive active tablets in Week 1 or Week 2, the patient should take 2 tablets the day she remembers and 2 tablets the next day; thereafter, the patient should resume taking 1 tablet daily until she finishes the cycle pack. The patient should be instructed to use a back-up method of birth control (such as condoms or spermicide) if she has intercourse in the 7 days after she restarts her pills. If the patient misses 2 consecutive pink tablets in the third week or misses 3 or more active tablets in a row at any time during the cycle, the patient should throw out the rest of that cycle pack and start a new cycle pack that same day. The patient should be instructed to use a back-up method of birth control if she has intercourse in the 7 days after restarting her pills.

Complete instructions to facilitate patient counseling on proper pill usage can be found in Detailed Patient Labeling ("" section).

ADDITIONAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR BOTH SUNDAY AND DAY 1 STARTS

If Spotting or Breakthrough Bleeding Occurs

Breakthrough bleeding, spotting, and amenorrhea are frequent reasons for patients discontinuing oral contraceptives. In breakthrough bleeding, as in all cases of irregular bleeding from the vagina, non-functional causes should be considered. In undiagnosed persistent or recurrent abnormal bleeding from the vagina, adequate diagnostic measures are indicated to rule out pregnancy or malignancy. If both pregnancy and pathology have been excluded, time or a change to another preparation may solve the problem. Changing to an oral contraceptive with a higher estrogen content, while potentially useful in minimizing menstrual irregularity, should be done only if necessary since this may increase the risk of thromboembolic disease.

Use of Velivet in The Event of a Missed Menstrual Period

1. If the patient has not adhered to the prescribed schedule, the possibility of pregnancy should be considered at the time of the first missed period and oral contraceptive use should be discontinued if pregnancy is confirmed.

2. If the patient has adhered to the prescribed regimen and misses two consecutive periods, pregnancy should be ruled out. Oral contraceptive use should be discontinued if pregnancy is confirmed.

Use of Velivet Postpartum

The use of Velivet for contraception may be initiated 4 to 6 weeks postpartum in women who elect not to breastfeed. When the tablets are administered during the postpartum period, the increased risk of thromboembolic disease associated with the postpartum period must be considered (see and concerning thromboembolic disease. See also , ).

If the patient starts on Velivet postpartum, and has not yet had a period, she should be instructed to use another method of contraception until a beige tablet has been taken daily for 7 consecutive days.


What interacts with Velivet?


  • Oral contraceptives should not be used in women who currently have the following conditions:

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    • WARNINGS, Risk of Liver Enzyme Elevations with Concomitant Hepatitis C Treatment



What are the warnings of Velivet?

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Cigarette smoking increases the risk of serious cardiovascular side effects from oral contraceptive use. This risk increases with age and with heavy smoking (15 or more cigarettes per day) and is quite marked in women over 35 years of age. Women who use oral contraceptives should be strongly advised not to smoke.



The use of oral contraceptives is associated with increased risks of several serious conditions including venous and arterial thrombotic and thromboembolic events (such as myocardial infarction, thromboembolism, and stroke) hepatic neoplasia, gallbladder disease, and hypertension, although the risk of serious morbidity or mortality is very small in healthy women without underlying risk factors. The risk of morbidity and mortality increases significantly in the presence of other underlying risk factors such as certain inherited thrombophilias, hypertension, hyperlipidemias, obesity, and diabetes.

Practitioners prescribing oral contraceptives should be familiar with the following information relating to these risks.

The information contained in this package insert is principally based on studies carried out in patients who used oral contraceptives with formulations of higher doses of estrogens and progestogens than those in common use today. The effect of long-term use of the oral contraceptives with formulations of lower doses of both estrogens and progestogens remains to be determined.

Throughout this labeling, epidemiologic studies reported are of two types: retrospective or case control studies and prospective or cohort studies. Case control studies provide a measure of the relative risk of a disease, namely, a of the incidence of a disease among oral contraceptive users to that among non-users. The relative risk does not provide information on the actual clinical occurrence of a disease. Cohort studies provide a measure of attributable risk, which is the in the incidence of disease between oral contraceptive users and non-users. The attributable risk does provide information about the actual occurrence of a disease in the population (Adapted from refs. 2 and 3 with the authors’ permission). For further information, the reader is referred to a text on epidemiological methods.

1. Thromboembolic Disorders and Other Vascular Problems

a.

An increased risk of thromboembolic and thrombotic disease associated with the use of oral contraceptives is well established. Case control studies have found the relative risk of users compared to non-users to be 3 for the first episode of superficial venous thrombosis, 4 to 11 for deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism, and 1.5 to 6 for women with predisposing conditions for venous thromboembolic disease. Cohort studies have shown the relative risk to be somewhat lower, about 3 for new cases and about 4.5 for new cases requiring hospitalization. The risk of thromboembolic disease associated with oral contraceptives is not related to length of use and disappears after pill use is stopped.

Several epidemiologic studies indicate that third generation oral contraceptives, including those containing desogestrel, are associated with a higher risk of venous thromboembolism than certain second generation oral contraceptives. In general, these studies indicate an approximate two-fold increased risk, which corresponds to an additional 1 to 2 cases of venous thromboembolism per 10,000 women-years of use. However, data from additional studies have not shown this two-fold increase in risk.

A two- to four-fold increase in relative risk of post-operative thromboembolic complications has been reported with the use of oral contraceptives. The relative risk of venous thrombosis in women who have predisposing conditions is twice that of women without such medical conditions. If feasible, oral contraceptives should be discontinued at least four weeks prior to and for two weeks after elective surgery of a type associated with an increase in risk of thromboembolism and during and following prolonged immobilization. Since the immediate postpartum period is associated with an increased risk of thromboembolism, oral contraceptives should be started no earlier than four to six weeks after delivery in women who elect not to breastfeed.

b.

An increased risk of myocardial infarction has been attributed to oral contraceptive use. This risk is primarily in smokers or women with other underlying risk factors for coronary artery disease such as hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, morbid obesity, and diabetes. The relative risk of heart attack for current oral contraceptive users has been estimated to be two to six. The risk is very low in women under the age of 30.

Smoking in combination with oral contraceptive use has been shown to contribute substantially to the incidence of myocardial infarction in women in their mid-thirties or older with smoking accounting for the majority of excess cases. Mortality rates associated with circulatory disease have been shown to increase substantially in smokers over the age of 35 and non-smokers over the age of 40 () among women who use oral contraceptives.

Oral contraceptives may compound the effects of well-known risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemias, age, and obesity. In particular, some progestogens are known to decrease HDL cholesterol and cause glucose intolerance, while estrogens may create a state of hyperinsulinism. Oral contraceptives have been shown to increase blood pressure among users (see section in ). Similar effects on risk factors have been associated with an increased risk of heart disease. Oral contraceptives must be used with caution in women with cardiovascular disease risk factors.

c.

Oral contraceptives have been shown to increase both the relative and attributable risks of cerebrovascular events (thrombotic and hemorrhagic strokes), although, in general, the risk is greatest among older (> 35 years), hypertensive women who also smoke. Hypertension was found to be a risk factor for both users and non-users, for both types of strokes, while smoking interacted to increase the risk for hemorrhagic strokes.

In a large study, the relative risk of thrombotic strokes has been shown to range from 3 for normotensive users to 14 for users with severe hypertension. The relative risk of hemorrhagic stroke is reported to be 1.2 for non-smokers who used oral contraceptives, 2.6 for smokers who did not use oral contraceptives, 7.6 for smokers who used oral contraceptives, 1.8 for normotensive users, and 25.7 for users with severe hypertension. The attributable risk is also greater in older women. Oral contraceptives also increase the risk for stroke in women with other underlying risk factors such as certain inherited or acquired thrombophilias, hyperlipidemias, and obesity. Women with migraine (particularly migraine with aura) who take combination oral contraceptives may be at an increased risk of stroke.

d.

A positive association has been observed between the amount of estrogen and progestogen in oral contraceptives and the risk of vascular disease. A decline in serum high-density lipoproteins (HDL) has been reported with many progestational agents. A decline in serum high-density lipoproteins has been associated with an increased incidence of ischemic heart disease. Because estrogens increase HDL cholesterol, the net effect of an oral contraceptive depends on a balance achieved between doses of estrogen and progestogen and the nature and absolute amount of progestogens used in the contraceptives. The amount of both hormones should be considered in the choice of an oral contraceptive.

Minimizing exposure to estrogen and progestogen is in keeping with good principles of therapeutics. For any particular estrogen/progestogen combination, the dosage regimen prescribed should be one which contains the least amount of estrogen and progestogen that is compatible with a low failure rate and the needs of the individual patient. New acceptors of oral contraceptive agents should be started on a product containing the lowest hormone content that provides satisfactory results in the individual.

e.

There are two studies which have shown persistence of risk of vascular disease for ever-users of oral contraceptives. In a study in the United States, the risk of developing myocardial infarction after discontinuing oral contraceptives persists for at least 9 years for women 40 to 49 years old who had used oral contraceptives for five or more years, but this increased risk was not demonstrated in other age groups. In another study in Great Britain, the risk of developing cerebrovascular disease persisted for at least 6 years after discontinuation of oral contraceptives, although excess risk was very small. However, both studies were performed with oral contraceptive formulations containing 50 micrograms or more of estrogens.

TABLE 3: CIRCULATORY DISEASE MORTALITY RATES PER 100,000 WOMAN-YEARS BY AGE, SMOKING STATUS, AND ORAL CONTRACEPTIVE USE.
15 to 24010.500
25 to 344.414.22.74.2
35 to 4421.563.46.415.2
45+52.4206.711.427.9
Adapted from P.M. Layde and V. Beral, ref. #12.


2. Estimates of Mortality from Contraceptive Use

One study gathered data from a variety of sources which have estimated the mortality rate associated with different methods of contraception at different ages (). These estimates include the combined risk of death associated with contraceptive methods plus the risk attributable to pregnancy in the event of method failure. Each method of contraception has its specific benefits and risks. The study concluded that with the exception of oral contraceptive users 35 and older who smoke and 40 and older who do not smoke, mortality associated with all methods of birth control is low and below that associated with childbirth.

The observation of a possible increase in risk of mortality with age for oral contraceptive users is based on data gathered in the 1970’s - but not reported until 1983. However, current clinical practice involves the use of lower estrogen formulations combined with careful restriction of oral contraceptive use to women who do not have the various risk factors listed in this labeling.

Because of these changes in practice and, also, because of some limited new data which suggest that the risk of cardiovascular disease with the use of oral contraceptives may now be less than previously observed, the Fertility and Maternal Health Drugs Advisory Committee was asked to review the topic in 1989. The Committee concluded that although cardiovascular disease risks may be increased with oral contraceptive use after age 40 in healthy non-smoking women (even with the newer low-dose formulations), there are also greater potential health risks associated with pregnancy in older women and with the alternative surgical and medical procedures which may be necessary if such women do not have access to effective and acceptable means of contraception.

Therefore, the Committee recommended that the benefits of low-dose oral contraceptive use by healthy non-smoking women over 40 may outweigh the possible risks. Of course, older women, as all women who take oral contraceptives, should take the lowest possible dose formulation that is effective and meets the individual patient needs.

Adapted from H.W. Ory, ref. #35.

TABLE 4: ANNUAL NUMBER OF BIRTH-RELATED OR METHOD-RELATED DEATHS ASSOCIATED WITH CONTROL OF FERTILITY PER 100,000 NON-STERILE WOMEN, BY FERTILITY CONTROL METHOD ACCORDING TO AGE.
No fertility control methods 77.49.114.825.728.2
Oral contraceptives non-smoker 0.30.50.91.913.831.6
Oral contraceptives smoker 2.23.46.613.551.1117.2
IUD 0.80.8111.41.4
Condom 1.11.60.70.20.30.4
Diaphragm/spermicide 1.91.21.21.32.22.8
Periodic abstinence 2.51.61.61.72.93.6


3. Carcinoma of the Reproductive Organs and Breasts

Numerous epidemiologic studies have been performed on the incidence of breast, endometrial, ovarian, and cervical cancer in women using oral contraceptives. Although the risk of breast cancer may be slightly increased among current users of oral contraceptives (RR = 1.24), this excess risk decreases over time after oral contraceptive discontinuation and by 10 years after cessation the increased risk disappears. The risk does not increase with duration of use, and no relationships have been found with dose or type of steroid. The patterns of risk are also similar regardless of a woman's reproductive history or her family breast cancer history. The subgroup for whom risk has been found to be significantly elevated is women who first used oral contraceptives before age 20, but because breast cancer is so rare at these young ages, the number of cases attributable to this early oral contraceptive use is extremely small. Breast cancers diagnosed in current or previous oral contraceptive users tend to be less advanced clinically than in never-users. Women who currently have or have had breast cancer should not use oral contraceptives because breast cancer is a hormone-sensitive tumor.

Some studies suggest that combination oral contraceptive use has been associated with an increase in the risk of cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia in some populations of women. However, there continues to be controversy about the extent to which such findings may be due to differences in sexual behavior and other factors.

In spite of many studies of the relationship between oral contraceptive use and breast and cervical cancers, a cause-and-effect relationship has not been established.

4. Hepatic Neoplasia

Benign hepatic adenomas are associated with oral contraceptive use, although the incidence of benign tumors is rare in the United States. Indirect calculations have estimated the attributable risk to be in the range of 3.3 cases/100,000 for users, a risk that increases after four or more years of use especially with oral contraceptives of higher dose. Rupture of rare, benign, hepatic adenomas may cause death through intra-abdominal hemorrhage.

Studies from Britain have shown an increased risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma in long-term (> 8 years) oral contraceptive users. However, these cancers are extremely rare in the U.S. and the attributable risk (the excess incidence) of liver cancers in oral contraceptive users approaches less than one per million users.

5. Risk of Liver Enzyme Elevations with Concomitant Hepatitis C Treatment

During clinical trials with the Hepatitis C combination drug regimen that contains ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir, with or without dasabuvir, ALT elevations greater than 5 times the upper limit of normal (ULN), including some cases greater than 20 times the ULN, were significantly more frequent in women using ethinyl estradiol-containing medications such as COCs. Discontinue Velivet (desogestrel and ethinyl estradiol tablets) prior to starting therapy with the combination drug regimen ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir, with or without dasabuvir [see ]. Velivet (desogestrel and ethinyl estradiol tablets) can be restarted approximately 2 weeks following completion of treatment with the combination drug regimen.

6. Ocular Lesions

There have been clinical case reports of retinal thrombosis associated with the use of oral contraceptives. Oral contraceptives should be discontinued if there is unexplained partial or complete loss of vision; onset of proptosis or diplopia; papilledema; or retinal vascular lesions. Appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic measures should be undertaken immediately.

7. Oral Contraceptive Use Before or During Early Pregnancy

Extensive epidemiologic studies have revealed no increased risk of birth defects in women who have used oral contraceptives prior to pregnancy. Studies also do not suggest a teratogenic effect, particularly in so far as cardiac anomalies and limb reduction defects are concerned, when oral contraceptives are taken inadvertently during early pregnancy.

The administration of oral contraceptives to induce withdrawal bleeding should not be used as a test for pregnancy. Oral contraceptives should not be used during pregnancy to treat threatened or habitual abortion. It is recommended that for any patient who has missed two consecutive periods, pregnancy should be ruled out. If the patient has not adhered to the prescribed schedule, the possibility of pregnancy should be considered at the first missed period. Oral contraceptive use should be discontinued if pregnancy is confirmed.

8. Gallbladder Disease

Earlier studies have reported an increased lifetime relative risk of gallbladder surgery in users of oral contraceptives and estrogens. More recent studies, however, have shown that the relative risk of developing gallbladder disease among oral contraceptive users may be minimal. The recent findings of minimal risk may be related to the use of oral contraceptive formulations containing lower hormonal doses of estrogens and progestogens.

9. Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolic Effects

Oral contraceptives have been shown to cause a decrease in glucose tolerance in a significant percentage of users. Oral contraceptives containing greater than 75 micrograms of estrogens cause hyperinsulinism, while lower doses of estrogen cause less glucose intolerance. Progestogens increase insulin secretion and create insulin resistance, this effect varying with different progestational agents. However, in the non-diabetic woman, oral contraceptives appear to have no effect on fasting blood glucose. Because of these demonstrated effects, prediabetic and diabetic women should be carefully monitored while taking oral contraceptives.

A small proportion of women will have persistent hypertriglyceridemia while on the pill. As discussed earlier (see ), changes in serum triglycerides and lipoprotein levels have been reported in oral contraceptive users.

10. Elevated Blood Pressure

Women with severe hypertension should not be started on hormonal contraceptives. An increase in blood pressure has been reported in women taking oral contraceptives and this increase is more likely in older oral contraceptive users and with continued use. Data from the Royal College of General Practitioners and subsequent randomized trials have shown that the incidence of hypertension increases with increasing quantities of progestogens.

Women with a history of hypertension or hypertension-related diseases, or renal disease should be encouraged to use another method of contraception. If women elect to use oral contraceptives, they should be monitored closely and if significant elevation of blood pressure occurs, oral contraceptives should be discontinued. For most women, elevated blood pressure will return to normal after stopping oral contraceptives, and there is no difference in the occurrence of hypertension between ever- and never-users.

11. Headache

The onset or exacerbation of migraine or development of headache with a new pattern which is recurrent, persistent, or severe requires discontinuation of oral contraceptives and evaluation of the cause.

12. Bleeding Irregularities

Breakthrough bleeding and spotting are sometimes encountered in patients on oral contraceptives, especially during the first three months of use. If bleeding persists or recurs, non-hormonal causes should be considered and adequate diagnostic measures taken to rule out malignancy or pregnancy, as in the case of any abnormal vaginal bleeding. If pathology has been excluded, time or a change to another formulation may solve the problem. In the event of amenorrhea, pregnancy should be ruled out.

Some women may encounter post-pill amenorrhea or oligomenorrhea, especially when such a condition was pre-existent.

13. Ectopic Pregnancy

Ectopic as well as intrauterine pregnancy may occur in contraceptive failures.


What are the precautions of Velivet?

1. Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Patients should be counseled that this product does not protect against HIV infection (AIDS) and other sexually transmitted diseases.

2. Physical Examination and Follow Up

It is good medical practice for all women to have annual history and physical examinations, including women using oral contraceptives. The physical examination, however, may be deferred until after initiation of oral contraceptives if requested by the woman and judged appropriate by the clinician. The physical examination should include special reference to blood pressure, breasts, abdomen and pelvic organs, including cervical cytology, and relevant laboratory tests. In case of undiagnosed, persistent or recurrent abnormal vaginal bleeding, appropriate measures should be conducted to rule out malignancy. Women with a strong family history of breast cancer or who have breast nodules should be monitored with particular care.

3. Lipid Disorders

Women who are being treated for hyperlipidemias should be followed closely if they elect to use oral contraceptives. Some progestogens may elevate LDL levels and may render the control of hyperlipidemias more difficult.

In patients with familial defects of lipoprotein metabolism receiving estrogen-containing preparations, there have been case reports of significant elevations of plasma triglycerides leading to pancreatitis.

4. Liver Function

If jaundice develops in any woman receiving oral contraceptives, the medication should be discontinued. The hormones in Velivet may be poorly metabolized in patients with impaired liver function.

5. Fluid Retention

Oral contraceptives may cause some degree of fluid retention. They should be prescribed with caution, and only with careful monitoring, in patients with conditions which might be aggravated by fluid retention.

6. Emotional Disorders

Patients becoming significantly depressed while taking oral contraceptives should stop the medication and use an alternate method of contraception in an attempt to determine whether the symptom is drug related. Women with a history of depression should be carefully observed and the drug discontinued if depression recurs to a serious degree.

7. Contact Lenses

Contact lens wearers who develop visual changes or changes in lens tolerance should be assessed by an ophthalmologist.

8. Drug Interactions

Changes in contraceptive effectiveness associated with coadministration of other drugs

a. Anti-infective agents and anticonvulsants

Contraceptive effectiveness may be reduced when hormonal contraceptives are coadministered with some antibiotics, anticonvulsants, and other drugs that increase metabolism of contraceptive steroids. This could result in unintended pregnancy or breakthrough bleeding. Examples include barbiturates, rifampin, phenylbutazone, phenytoin, carbamazepine, felbamate, oxcarbazepine, topiramate, and griseofulvin.

Since desogestrel is mainly metabolized by the cytochrome P450 2C9 enzyme (CYP 2C9) to form etonogestrel, the active progestin, there is a possibility of interaction with CYP 2C9 substrates or inhibitors (such as: ibuprofen, piroxicam, naproxen, phenytoin, fluconazole, diclofenac, tolbutamide, glipizide, celecoxib, sulfamethoxazole, isoniazid, torsemide, irbesartan, losartan, and valsartan). The clinical relevance of these interactions is unknown.

b. Anti-HIV protease inhibitors

Several of the anti-HIV protease inhibitors have been studied with coadministration of oral combination hormonal contraceptives; significant changes (increase and decrease) in the plasma levels of the estrogen and progestin have been noted in some cases. The efficacy and safety of these oral contraceptive products may be affected with coadministration of anti-HIV protease inhibitors. Healthcare providers should refer to the label of the individual anti-HIV protease inhibitors for further drug-drug interaction information.

Concomitant Use with HCV Combination Therapy – Liver Enzyme Elevation

Do not co-administer Velivet (desogestrel and ethinyl estradiol tablets) with HCV drug combinations containing ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir, with or without dasabuvir, due to potential for ALT elevations (see ).

c. Herbal products

Herbal products containing St. John’s Wort (hypericum perforatum) may induce hepatic enzymes (cytochrome P450) and p-glycoprotein transporter and may reduce the effectiveness of contraceptive steroids. This may also result in breakthrough bleeding.

Increase in plasma hormone levels associated with coadministered drugs

Coadministration of atorvastatin and certain ethinyl estradiol containing oral contraceptives increased AUC values for ethinyl estradiol by approximately 20%. Ascorbic acid and acetaminophen may increase plasma ethinyl estradiol levels, possibly by inhibition of conjugation. CYP 3A4 inhibitors such as itraconazole or ketoconazole may increase plasma hormone levels.

Changes in plasma levels of coadministered drugs

Combination hormonal contraceptives containing some synthetic estrogens (e.g., ethinyl estradiol) may inhibit the metabolism of other compounds. Increased plasma concentrations of cyclosporine, prednisolone, and theophylline have been reported with concomitant administration of oral contraceptives. Decreased plasma concentrations of acetaminophen and increased clearance of temazepam, salicylic acid, morphine, and clofibric acid have been noted when these drugs were administered with oral contraceptives.

No formal drug-drug interaction studies were conducted with Velivet.

9. Interactions with Laboratory Tests

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a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

f.

g.

Certain endocrine and liver function tests and blood components may be affected by oral contraceptives:

10. Carcinogenesis

See section.

11. Pregnancy



Pregnancy Category X

See and sections.

12. Nursing Mothers

Small amounts of oral contraceptive steroids have been identified in the milk of nursing mothers and a few adverse effects on the child have been reported, including jaundice and breast enlargement. In addition, combination oral contraceptives given in the postpartum period may interfere with lactation by decreasing the quantity and quality of breast milk. If possible, the nursing mother should be advised not to use oral contraceptives but to use other forms of contraception until she has completely weaned her child.

13. Pediatric Use

Safety and efficacy of Velivet tablets have been established in women of reproductive age. Safety and efficacy are expected to be the same for postpubertal adolescents under the age of 16 and for users 16 years and older. Use of this product before menarche is not indicated.

14. Geriatric Use

This product has not been studied in women over 65 years of age and is not indicated in this population.

INFORMATION FOR THE PATIENT

See Patient Labeling printed below.


What are the side effects of Velivet?

An increased risk of the following serious adverse reactions has been associated with the use of oral contraceptives (see section):

There is evidence of an association between the following conditions and the use of oral contraceptives:

The following adverse reactions have been reported in patients receiving oral contraceptives and are believed to be drug-related:

The following adverse reactions have been reported in users of oral contraceptives and the association has been neither confirmed nor refuted:


What should I look out for while using Velivet?

Oral contraceptives should not be used in women who currently have the following conditions:


What might happen if I take too much Velivet?

Serious ill effects have not been reported following acute ingestion of large doses of oral contraceptives by young children. Overdosage may cause nausea, and withdrawal bleeding may occur in females.

NON-CONTRACEPTIVE HEALTH BENEFITS

The following non-contraceptive health benefits related to the use of oral contraceptives are supported by epidemiologic studies which largely utilized oral contraceptive formulations containing estrogen doses exceeding 0.035 mg of ethinyl estradiol or 0.05 mg of mestranol.

Effects on menses:

Effects related to inhibition of ovulation:

Effects from long-term use:


How should I store and handle Velivet?

Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15 to 30°C (59 to 86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].Velivet (desogestrel and ethinyl estradiol tablets USP - triphasic regimen) is available in a 28 day blister card tablet dispenser. Each 28 day treatment cycle pack consists of four different dosing phases, as follows: 7 beige, round, film-coated, biconvex, unscored tablets (debossed with stylized b on one side and 333 on the other side) containing 0.1 mg desogestrel and 0.025 mg ethinyl estradiol, USP; 7 orange, round, film-coated, biconvex, unscored tablets (debossed with stylized b on one side and 332 on the other side) containing 0.125 mg desogestrel and 0.025 mg ethinyl estradiol, USP; 7 pink, round, film-coated, biconvex, unscored tablets (debossed with stylized b on one side and 335 on the other side) containing 0.15 mg desogestrel and 0.025 mg ethinyl estradiol, USP and seven white, round, biconvex, unscored tablets (debossed with stylized b on one side and 334 on the other side) containing inert ingredients.Boxes of 3 NDC 0555-9051-67Storage Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].KEEP THIS AND ALL MEDICATIONS OUT OF THE REACH OF CHILDREN.Velivet (desogestrel and ethinyl estradiol tablets USP - triphasic regimen) is available in a 28 day blister card tablet dispenser. Each 28 day treatment cycle pack consists of four different dosing phases, as follows: 7 beige, round, film-coated, biconvex, unscored tablets (debossed with stylized b on one side and 333 on the other side) containing 0.1 mg desogestrel and 0.025 mg ethinyl estradiol, USP; 7 orange, round, film-coated, biconvex, unscored tablets (debossed with stylized b on one side and 332 on the other side) containing 0.125 mg desogestrel and 0.025 mg ethinyl estradiol, USP; 7 pink, round, film-coated, biconvex, unscored tablets (debossed with stylized b on one side and 335 on the other side) containing 0.15 mg desogestrel and 0.025 mg ethinyl estradiol, USP and seven white, round, biconvex, unscored tablets (debossed with stylized b on one side and 334 on the other side) containing inert ingredients.Boxes of 3 NDC 0555-9051-67Storage Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].KEEP THIS AND ALL MEDICATIONS OUT OF THE REACH OF CHILDREN.Velivet (desogestrel and ethinyl estradiol tablets USP - triphasic regimen) is available in a 28 day blister card tablet dispenser. Each 28 day treatment cycle pack consists of four different dosing phases, as follows: 7 beige, round, film-coated, biconvex, unscored tablets (debossed with stylized b on one side and 333 on the other side) containing 0.1 mg desogestrel and 0.025 mg ethinyl estradiol, USP; 7 orange, round, film-coated, biconvex, unscored tablets (debossed with stylized b on one side and 332 on the other side) containing 0.125 mg desogestrel and 0.025 mg ethinyl estradiol, USP; 7 pink, round, film-coated, biconvex, unscored tablets (debossed with stylized b on one side and 335 on the other side) containing 0.15 mg desogestrel and 0.025 mg ethinyl estradiol, USP and seven white, round, biconvex, unscored tablets (debossed with stylized b on one side and 334 on the other side) containing inert ingredients.Boxes of 3 NDC 0555-9051-67Storage Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].KEEP THIS AND ALL MEDICATIONS OUT OF THE REACH OF CHILDREN.Velivet (desogestrel and ethinyl estradiol tablets USP - triphasic regimen) is available in a 28 day blister card tablet dispenser. Each 28 day treatment cycle pack consists of four different dosing phases, as follows: 7 beige, round, film-coated, biconvex, unscored tablets (debossed with stylized b on one side and 333 on the other side) containing 0.1 mg desogestrel and 0.025 mg ethinyl estradiol, USP; 7 orange, round, film-coated, biconvex, unscored tablets (debossed with stylized b on one side and 332 on the other side) containing 0.125 mg desogestrel and 0.025 mg ethinyl estradiol, USP; 7 pink, round, film-coated, biconvex, unscored tablets (debossed with stylized b on one side and 335 on the other side) containing 0.15 mg desogestrel and 0.025 mg ethinyl estradiol, USP and seven white, round, biconvex, unscored tablets (debossed with stylized b on one side and 334 on the other side) containing inert ingredients.Boxes of 3 NDC 0555-9051-67Storage Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].KEEP THIS AND ALL MEDICATIONS OUT OF THE REACH OF CHILDREN.Velivet (desogestrel and ethinyl estradiol tablets USP - triphasic regimen) is available in a 28 day blister card tablet dispenser. Each 28 day treatment cycle pack consists of four different dosing phases, as follows: 7 beige, round, film-coated, biconvex, unscored tablets (debossed with stylized b on one side and 333 on the other side) containing 0.1 mg desogestrel and 0.025 mg ethinyl estradiol, USP; 7 orange, round, film-coated, biconvex, unscored tablets (debossed with stylized b on one side and 332 on the other side) containing 0.125 mg desogestrel and 0.025 mg ethinyl estradiol, USP; 7 pink, round, film-coated, biconvex, unscored tablets (debossed with stylized b on one side and 335 on the other side) containing 0.15 mg desogestrel and 0.025 mg ethinyl estradiol, USP and seven white, round, biconvex, unscored tablets (debossed with stylized b on one side and 334 on the other side) containing inert ingredients.Boxes of 3 NDC 0555-9051-67Storage Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].KEEP THIS AND ALL MEDICATIONS OUT OF THE REACH OF CHILDREN.


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Clinical Information

Chemical Structure

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Clinical Pharmacology

Absorption

Desogestrel is rapidly and almost completely absorbed and converted into etonogestrel, its biologically active metabolite. Following oral administration, the relative bioavailability of desogestrel, based on the lowest and highest tablet strengths, 0.100 mg desogestrel/0.025 mg ethinyl estradiol and 0.150 mg desogestrel/0.025 mg ethinyl estradiol, compared to solution, as measured by serum levels of etonogestrel, is approximately 100%. Ethinyl estradiol is rapidly and almost completely absorbed. When the lowest and highest tablet strengths, 0.100 mg desogestrel/0.025 mg ethinyl estradiol and 0.150 mg desogestrel/0.025 mg ethinyl estradiol, were compared to solution, the relative bioavailability of ethinyl estradiol was 92% and 98%, respectively. The effect of food on the bioavailability of desogestrel and ethinyl estradiol tablets following oral administration has not been evaluated.

The pharmacokinetics of etonogestrel and ethinyl estradiol following multiple dose administration of desogestrel and ethinyl estradiol tablets were determined during the third cycle in 21 subjects. After multiple dosing with desogestrel and ethinyl estradiol tablets, plasma concentrations of etonogestrel reached steady-state after four days of treatment during dosing Phases 1 and 3. During dosing Phase 2, steady-state was reached after five days of treatment. The dose-normalized AUC for etonogestrel was increased approximately 20% from Phase 1 to Phase 2 and approximately 10% from Phase 2 to Phase 3. SHBG concentrations were shown to be induced by the daily administration of ethinyl estradiol. Steady state for ethinyl estradiol was reached after four days of dosing in all dosing phases. The pharmacokinetic parameters of etonogestrel and ethinyl estradiol during the third cycle following multiple dose administration of desogestrel and ethinyl estradiol tablets are summarized in .

Distribution

Etonogestrel, the active metabolite of desogestrel, was found to be 98% protein bound, primarily to sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). Ethinyl estradiol is primarily bound to plasma albumin. Ethinyl estradiol does not bind to SHBG, but induces SHBG synthesis. Desogestrel, in combination with ethinyl estradiol, does not counteract the estrogen-induced increase in SHBG, resulting in lower serum levels of free testosterone.

Metabolism

Desogestrel: Desogestrel is rapidly and completely metabolized by hydroxylation in the intestinal mucosa and on first pass through the liver to etonogestrel. data suggest an important role for the cytochrome P450 CYP2C9 in the bioactivation of desogestrel. Further metabolism of etonogestrel into 6β-hydroxy, etonogestrel and 6β-13ethyl-dihydroxylated metabolites as major metabolites is catalyzed by CYP3A4. Other metabolites (i.e., 3α-OH-desogestrel, 3β-OH-desogestrel, and 3α-OH-5α-H-desogestrel) also have been identified and these metabolites may undergo glucuronide and sulfate conjugation.

Ethinyl Estradiol: Ethinyl estradiol is subject to a significant degree of presystemic conjugation (phase II metabolism). Ethinyl estradiol, escaping gut wall conjugation, undergoes phase I metabolism and hepatic conjugation (phase II metabolism). Major phase I metabolites are 2-OH-ethinyl estradiol and 2-methoxy-ethinyl estradiol. Sulfate and glucuronide conjugates of both ethinyl estradiol and phase I metabolites, which are excreted in bile, can undergo enterohepatic circulation.

Excretion

Etonogestrel and ethinyl estradiol are primarily eliminated in urine, bile and feces. At steady state, on Day 21, the elimination half-lives of etonogestrel and ethinyl estradiol are 37.1 ± 14.8 hours and 28.2 ± 10.5 hours, respectively.

Non-Clinical Toxicology
Oral contraceptives should not be used in women who currently have the following conditions:

Changes in contraceptive effectiveness associated with coadministration of other drugs

a. Anti-infective agents and anticonvulsants

Contraceptive effectiveness may be reduced when hormonal contraceptives are coadministered with some antibiotics, anticonvulsants, and other drugs that increase metabolism of contraceptive steroids. This could result in unintended pregnancy or breakthrough bleeding. Examples include barbiturates, rifampin, phenylbutazone, phenytoin, carbamazepine, felbamate, oxcarbazepine, topiramate, and griseofulvin.

Since desogestrel is mainly metabolized by the cytochrome P450 2C9 enzyme (CYP 2C9) to form etonogestrel, the active progestin, there is a possibility of interaction with CYP 2C9 substrates or inhibitors (such as: ibuprofen, piroxicam, naproxen, phenytoin, fluconazole, diclofenac, tolbutamide, glipizide, celecoxib, sulfamethoxazole, isoniazid, torsemide, irbesartan, losartan, and valsartan). The clinical relevance of these interactions is unknown.

b. Anti-HIV protease inhibitors

Several of the anti-HIV protease inhibitors have been studied with coadministration of oral combination hormonal contraceptives; significant changes (increase and decrease) in the plasma levels of the estrogen and progestin have been noted in some cases. The efficacy and safety of these oral contraceptive products may be affected with coadministration of anti-HIV protease inhibitors. Healthcare providers should refer to the label of the individual anti-HIV protease inhibitors for further drug-drug interaction information.

Concomitant Use with HCV Combination Therapy – Liver Enzyme Elevation

Do not co-administer Velivet (desogestrel and ethinyl estradiol tablets) with HCV drug combinations containing ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir, with or without dasabuvir, due to potential for ALT elevations (see ).

c. Herbal products

Herbal products containing St. John’s Wort (hypericum perforatum) may induce hepatic enzymes (cytochrome P450) and p-glycoprotein transporter and may reduce the effectiveness of contraceptive steroids. This may also result in breakthrough bleeding.

Increase in plasma hormone levels associated with coadministered drugs

Coadministration of atorvastatin and certain ethinyl estradiol containing oral contraceptives increased AUC values for ethinyl estradiol by approximately 20%. Ascorbic acid and acetaminophen may increase plasma ethinyl estradiol levels, possibly by inhibition of conjugation. CYP 3A4 inhibitors such as itraconazole or ketoconazole may increase plasma hormone levels.

Changes in plasma levels of coadministered drugs

Combination hormonal contraceptives containing some synthetic estrogens (e.g., ethinyl estradiol) may inhibit the metabolism of other compounds. Increased plasma concentrations of cyclosporine, prednisolone, and theophylline have been reported with concomitant administration of oral contraceptives. Decreased plasma concentrations of acetaminophen and increased clearance of temazepam, salicylic acid, morphine, and clofibric acid have been noted when these drugs were administered with oral contraceptives.

No formal drug-drug interaction studies were conducted with Velivet.

Patients should be counseled that this product does not protect against HIV infection (AIDS) and other sexually transmitted diseases.

An increased risk of the following serious adverse reactions has been associated with the use of oral contraceptives (see section):

There is evidence of an association between the following conditions and the use of oral contraceptives:

The following adverse reactions have been reported in patients receiving oral contraceptives and are believed to be drug-related:

The following adverse reactions have been reported in users of oral contraceptives and the association has been neither confirmed nor refuted:

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Reference

This information is obtained from the National Institute of Health's Standard Packaging Label drug database.
"https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/"

While we update our database periodically, we cannot guarantee it is always updated to the latest version.

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Professional

Clonazepam Description Each single-scored tablet, for oral administration, contains 0.5 mg, 1 mg, or 2 mg Clonazepam, USP, a benzodiazepine. Each tablet also contains corn starch, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and povidone. Clonazepam tablets USP 0.5 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake. Clonazepam tablets USP 1 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake, as well as FD&C Blue No. 1 Aluminum Lake. Chemically, Clonazepam, USP is 5-(o-chlorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-7-nitro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one. It is a light yellow crystalline powder. It has the following structural formula: C15H10ClN3O3 M.W. 315.72
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Tips

Tips

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Interactions

Interactions

A total of 440 drugs (1549 brand and generic names) are known to interact with Imbruvica (ibrutinib). 228 major drug interactions (854 brand and generic names) 210 moderate drug interactions (691 brand and generic names) 2 minor drug interactions (4 brand and generic names) Show all medications in the database that may interact with Imbruvica (ibrutinib).