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Visken

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Overview

What is Visken?

Visken (pindolol), a synthetic beta-adrenergic receptor blocking agent with intrinsic sympathomimetic activity is 1-(Indol-4-yloxy)-3-(isopropylamino)-2-propanol.

Its structural formula is:

Pindolol is a white to off-white odorless powder soluble in organic solvents and aqueous acids. Visken (pindolol) is intended for oral administration.



What does Visken look like?



What are the available doses of Visken?

Sorry No records found.

What should I talk to my health care provider before I take Visken?

Sorry No records found

How should I use Visken?

Sorry No records found


What interacts with Visken?

Visken (pindolol) is contraindicated in: 1) bronchial asthma; 2) overt cardiac failure; 3) cardiogenic shock; 4) second and third degree heart block; 5) severe bradycardia.


(See WARNINGS)


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What are the warnings of Visken?

Cardiac Failure

Sympathetic stimulation may be a vital component supporting circulatory function in patients with congestive heart failure, and its inhibition by beta-blockade may precipitate more severe failure. Although beta-blockers should be avoided in overt congestive heart failure, if necessary, Visken (pindolol) can be used with caution in patients with a history of failure who are well-compensated, usually with digitalis and diuretics. Beta-adrenergic blocking agents do not abolish the inotropic action of digitalis on heart muscle.

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In Patients Without History of Cardiac Failure

In patients with latent cardiac insufficiency, continued depression of the myocardium with beta-blocking agents over a period of time can in some cases lead to cardiac failure. At the first sign or symptom of impending cardiac failure, patients should be fully digitalized and/or be given a diuretic, and the response observed closely. If cardiac failure continues, despite adequate digitalization and diuretic, Visken (pindolol) therapy should be withdrawn (gradually if possible).

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Exacerbation of Ischemic Heart Disease Following Abrupt Withdrawal

Hypersensitivity to catecholamines has been observed in patients withdrawn from beta-blocker therapy; exacerbation of angina and, in some cases, myocardial infarction have occurred after discontinuation of such therapy. When discontinuing chronically administered Visken (pindolol), particularly in patients with ischemic heart disease, the dosage should be gradually reduced over a period of 1-2 weeks and the patient should be carefully monitored. If angina markedly worsens or acute coronary insufficiency develops, Visken (pindolol) administration should be reinstituted promptly, at least temporarily, and other measures appropriate for the management of unstable angina should be taken. Patients should be warned against interruption or discontinuation of therapy without the physician’s advice. Because coronary artery disease is common and may be unrecognized, it may be prudent not to discontinue Visken (pindolol) therapy abruptly even in patients treated only for hypertension.

Nonallergic Bronchospasm (e.g., chronic bronchitis, emphysema) - Patients with Bronchospastic Diseases Should in General Not Receive Beta-Blockers

Visken (pindolol) should be administered with caution since it may block bronchodilation produced by endogenous or exogenous catecholamine stimulation of beta receptors.

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Major Surgery

Because beta blockade impairs the ability of the heart to respond to reflex stimuli and may increase the risks of general anesthesia and surgical procedures, resulting in protracted hypotension or low cardiac output, it has generally been suggested that such therapy should be gradually withdrawn several days prior to surgery. Recognition of the increased sensitivity to catecholamines of patients recently withdrawn from beta-blocker therapy, however, has made this recommendation controversial. If possible, beta-blockers should be withdrawn well before surgery takes place. In the event of emergency surgery, the anesthesiologist should be informed that the patient is on beta-blocker therapy.

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The effects of Visken (pindolol) can be reversed by administration of beta-receptor agonists such as isoproterenol, dopamine, dobutamine, or levarterenol. Difficulty in restarting and maintaining the heart beat has also been reported with beta-adrenergic receptor blocking agents.

Diabetes and Hypoglycemia

Beta-adrenergic blockade may prevent the appearance of premonitory signs and symptoms (e.g., tachycardia and blood pressure changes) of acute hypoglycemia. This is especially important with labile diabetics. Beta-blockade also reduces the release of insulin in response to hyperglycemia; therefore, it may be necessary to adjust the dose of antidiabetic drugs.

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Thyrotoxicosis

Beta-adrenergic blockade may mask certain clinical signs (e.g., tachycardia) of hyperthyroidism. Patients suspected of developing thyrotoxicosis should be managed carefully to avoid abrupt withdrawal of beta-blockade which might precipitate a thyroid crisis.

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What are the precautions of Visken?

Impaired Renal or Hepatic Function

Beta-blocking agents should be used with caution in patients with impaired hepatic or renal function. Poor renal function has only minor effects on Visken (pindolol) clearance, but poor hepatic function may cause blood levels of Visken (pindolol) to increase substantially.

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Information for Patients

Patients, especially those with evidence of coronary artery insufficiency, should be warned against interruption or discontinuation of Visken (pindolol) therapy without the physician’s advice. Although cardiac failure rarely occurs in properly selected patients, patients being treated with beta-adrenergic blocking agents should be advised to consult the physician at the first sign or symptom of impending failure.

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Drug Interactions

Catecholamine-depleting drugs (e.g., reserpine) may have an additive effect when given with beta-blocking agents. Patients receiving Visken (pindolol) plus a catecholamine-depleting agent should, therefore, be closely observed for evidence of hypotension and/or marked bradycardia which may produce vertigo, syncope, or postural hypotension.

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Visken (pindolol) has been used with a variety of antihypertensive agents, including hydrochlorothiazide, hydralazine, and guanethidine without unexpected adverse interactions.

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Visken (pindolol) has been shown to increase serum thioridazine levels when both drugs are co-administered. Visken (pindolol) levels may also be increased with this combination.

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While taking beta blockers, patients with a history of severe anaphylactic reaction to a variety of allergens may be more reactive to repeated challenge, either accidental, diagnostic, or therapeutic. Such patients may be unresponsive to the usual doses of epinephrine used to treat allergic reaction.

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Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

In chronic oral toxicologic studies (1-2 years) in mice, rats, and dogs, Visken (pindolol) did not produce any significant toxic effects. In 2-year oral carcinogenicity studies in rats and mice in doses as high as 59 mg/kg/day and 124 mg/kg/day (50 and 100 times the maximum recommended human dose), respectively, Visken (pindolol) did not produce any neoplastic, preneoplastic, or nonneoplastic pathologic lesions. In fertility and general reproductive performance studies in rats, Visken (pindolol) caused no adverse effects at a dose of 10 mg/kg.

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In the male fertility and general reproductive performance test in rats, definite toxicity characterized by mortality and decreased weight gain was observed in the group given 100 mg/kg/day. At 30 mg/kg/day, decreased mating was associated with testicular atrophy and/or decreased spermatogenesis. This response is not clearly drug related, however, as there was no dose response relationship within this experiment and no similar effect on testes of rats administered Visken (pindolol) as a dietary admixture for 104 weeks. There appeared to be an increase in prenatal mortality in males given 100 mg/kg but development of offspring was not impaired.

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In females administered Visken (pindolol) prior to mating through day 21 of lactation, mating behavior was decreased at 100 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg. At these dosages there also was increased mortality of offspring. Prenatal mortality was increased at 10 mg/kg but there was not a clear dose response relationship in this experiment. There was an increased resorption rate at 100 mg/kg observed in females necropsied on the 15th day of gestation.

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Pregnancy

Studies in rats and rabbits exceeding 100 times the maximum recommended human doses, revealed no embryotoxicity or teratogenicity. Since there are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women, and since animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, Visken (pindolol), as with any drug, should be employed during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

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Nursing Mothers

Since Visken (pindolol) is secreted in human milk, nursing should not be undertaken by mothers receiving the drug.

Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.


What are the side effects of Visken?

Most adverse reactions have been mild. The incidences listed in the following table are derived from 12-week comparative double-blind, parallel design trials in hypertensive patients given Visken (pindolol) as monotherapy, given various active control drugs as monotherapy, or given placebo. Data for Visken (pindolol) and the positive controls were pooled from several trials because no striking differences were seen in the individual studies, with 1 exception. When considering all adverse reactions reported, the frequency of edema was noticeably higher in positive control trials [16% Visken (pindolol) vs. 9% positive control] than in placebo controlled trials [6%Visken (pindolol) vs. 3% placebo]. The table includes adverse reactions either volunteered or elicited, and at least possibly drug related, which were reported in greater than 2% of Visken (pindolol) patients and other selected important reactions.

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The following selected (potentially important) adverse reactions were seen in 2% or fewer patients and their relationship to Visken (pindolol) is uncertain. CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM: anxiety, lethargy; AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM: visual disturbances, hyperhidrosis; CARDIOVASCULAR: bradycardia, claudication, cold extremities, heart block, hypotension, syncope, tachycardia, weight gain; GASTROINTESTINAL: diarrhea, vomiting; RESPIRATORY: wheezing; UROGENITAL: impotence, pollakiuria; MISCELLANEOUS: eye discomfort or burning eyes.

Adverse Reactions Which Were Volunteered or Elicited(and at least possibly drug related)
Central Nervous System
   Bizarre or Many Dreams506
   Dizziness9111
   Fatigue844
   Hallucinations00
   Insomnia10310
   Nervousness735
   Weakness421
Autonomic Nervous System
   Paresthesia316
Cardiovascular
   Dyspnea546
   Edema631
   Heart Failure0
   Palpitations10
Musculoskeletal
   Chest Pain313
   Joint Pain744
   Muscle Cramps310
   Muscle Pain1098
Gastrointestinal
   Abdominal Discomfort445
   Nausea521
Skin
   Pruritus10
   Rash1



What should I look out for while using Visken?

Visken (pindolol) is contraindicated in: 1) bronchial asthma; 2) overt cardiac failure; 3) cardiogenic shock; 4) second and third degree heart block; 5) severe bradycardia.

(See WARNINGS)


What might happen if I take too much Visken?

No specific information on emergency treatment of overdosage is available. Therefore, on the basis of the pharmacologic actions of Visken (pindolol), the following general measures should be employed as appropriate in addition to gastric lavage:

Excessive Bradycardia

Cardiac Failure

Hypotension

Bronchospasm

A case of an acute overdosage has been reported with an intake of 500 mg of Visken (pindolol) by a hypertensive patient. Blood pressure increased and heart rate was ≥80 beats/min. Recovery was uneventful. In another case, 250 mg of Visken (pindolol) was taken with 150 mg diazepam and 50 mg nitrazepam, producing coma and hypotension. The patient recovered in 24 hours.


How should I store and handle Visken?

ELIXOPHYLLIN Elixir is a clear red solution with a mixed fruit flavor. Each tablespoonful (15 mL) contains 80 mg theophylline anhydrous.ELIXOPHYLLIN Elixir is available in bottles of473 mL     NDC 0456-0644-16ELIXOPHYLLIN Elixir is a clear red solution with a mixed fruit flavor. Each tablespoonful (15 mL) contains 80 mg theophylline anhydrous.ELIXOPHYLLIN Elixir is available in bottles of473 mL     NDC 0456-0644-16ELIXOPHYLLIN Elixir is a clear red solution with a mixed fruit flavor. Each tablespoonful (15 mL) contains 80 mg theophylline anhydrous.ELIXOPHYLLIN Elixir is available in bottles of473 mL     NDC 0456-0644-16


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Clinical Information

Chemical Structure

No Image found
Clinical Pharmacology

Visken (pindolol) is a non-selective beta-adrenergic antagonist (beta-blocker) which possesses intrinsic sympathomimetic activity (ISA) in therapeutic dosage ranges but does not possess quinidine-like membrane stabilizing activity.

Non-Clinical Toxicology
Visken (pindolol) is contraindicated in: 1) bronchial asthma; 2) overt cardiac failure; 3) cardiogenic shock; 4) second and third degree heart block; 5) severe bradycardia.

(See WARNINGS)

Catecholamine-depleting drugs (e.g., reserpine) may have an additive effect when given with beta-blocking agents. Patients receiving Visken (pindolol) plus a catecholamine-depleting agent should, therefore, be closely observed for evidence of hypotension and/or marked bradycardia which may produce vertigo, syncope, or postural hypotension.

Array

Visken (pindolol) has been used with a variety of antihypertensive agents, including hydrochlorothiazide, hydralazine, and guanethidine without unexpected adverse interactions.

Array

Visken (pindolol) has been shown to increase serum thioridazine levels when both drugs are co-administered. Visken (pindolol) levels may also be increased with this combination.

Array

Beta-blocking agents should be used with caution in patients with impaired hepatic or renal function. Poor renal function has only minor effects on Visken (pindolol) clearance, but poor hepatic function may cause blood levels of Visken (pindolol) to increase substantially.

Most adverse reactions have been mild. The incidences listed in the following table are derived from 12-week comparative double-blind, parallel design trials in hypertensive patients given Visken (pindolol) as monotherapy, given various active control drugs as monotherapy, or given placebo. Data for Visken (pindolol) and the positive controls were pooled from several trials because no striking differences were seen in the individual studies, with 1 exception. When considering all adverse reactions reported, the frequency of edema was noticeably higher in positive control trials [16% Visken (pindolol) vs. 9% positive control] than in placebo controlled trials [6%Visken (pindolol) vs. 3% placebo]. The table includes adverse reactions either volunteered or elicited, and at least possibly drug related, which were reported in greater than 2% of Visken (pindolol) patients and other selected important reactions.

*

The following selected (potentially important) adverse reactions were seen in 2% or fewer patients and their relationship to Visken (pindolol) is uncertain. CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM: anxiety, lethargy; AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM: visual disturbances, hyperhidrosis; CARDIOVASCULAR: bradycardia, claudication, cold extremities, heart block, hypotension, syncope, tachycardia, weight gain; GASTROINTESTINAL: diarrhea, vomiting; RESPIRATORY: wheezing; UROGENITAL: impotence, pollakiuria; MISCELLANEOUS: eye discomfort or burning eyes.

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Reference

This information is obtained from the National Institute of Health's Standard Packaging Label drug database.
"https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/"

While we update our database periodically, we cannot guarantee it is always updated to the latest version.

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Professional

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Tips

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Interactions

Interactions

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