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tizanidine hydrochloride

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Overview

What is Zanaflex?

Zanaflex (tizanidine hydrochloride) is a central alpha -adrenergic agonist. Tizanidine HCl is a white to off-white, fine crystalline powder, which is odorless or with a faint characteristic odor. Tizanidine is slightly soluble in water and methanol; solubility in water decreases as the pH increases. Its chemical name is 5-chloro-4-(2-imidazolin-2-ylamino)-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole monohydrochloride. Tizanidine's molecular formula is C H ClN S-HCl, its molecular weight is 290.2 and its structural formula is:

Zanaflex Capsules are supplied as 2, 4, and 6 mg capsules for oral administration. Zanaflex Capsules contain the active ingredient, tizanidine hydrochloride (2.29 mg equivalent to 2 mg tizanidine base, 4.58 mg equivalent to 4 mg tizanidine base, and 6.87 mg equivalent to 6 mg tizanidine base), and the inactive ingredients, hypromellose, silicon dioxide, sugar spheres, titanium dioxide, gelatin, and colorants.

Zanaflex tablets are supplied as 4 mg tablets for oral administration. Zanaflex tablets contain the active ingredient, tizanidine hydrochloride (4.58 mg equivalent to 4 mg tizanidine base), and the inactive ingredients, colloidal silicon dioxide, stearic acid, microcrystalline cellulose and anhydrous lactose.



What does Zanaflex look like?



What are the available doses of Zanaflex?

What should I talk to my health care provider before I take Zanaflex?

How should I use Zanaflex?

Zanaflex is a central alpha-2-adrenergic agonist indicated for the management of spasticity. Because of the short duration of therapeutic effect, treatment with Zanaflex should be reserved for those daily activities and times when relief of spasticity is most important [ ].

Zanaflex Capsules or Zanaflex tablets may be prescribed with or without food. Once the formulation has been selected and the decision to take with or without food has been made, this regimen should not be altered.

Food has complex effects on tizanidine pharmacokinetics, which differ with the different formulations. Zanaflex Capsules and Zanaflex tablets are bioequivalent to each other under fasting conditions (more than 3 hours after a meal), but not under fed conditions (within 30 minutes of a meal). These pharmacokinetic differences may result in clinically significant differences when switching administration of tablet and capsules and when switching administration between the fed or fasted state. These changes may result in increased adverse events, or delayed or more rapid onset of activity, depending upon the nature of the switch. For this reason, the prescriber should be thoroughly familiar with the changes in kinetics associated with these different conditions [ ].

The recommended starting dose is 2 mg. Because the effect of Zanaflex peaks at approximately 1 to 2 hours post-dose and dissipates between 3 to 6 hours post-dose, treatment can be repeated at 6 to 8 hour intervals, as needed, to a maximum of three doses in 24 hours.

Dosage can be gradually increased by 2 mg to 4 mg at each dose, with 1 to 4 days between dosage increases, until a satisfactory reduction of muscle tone is achieved. The total daily dose should not exceed 36 mg. Single doses greater than 16 mg have not been studied.


What interacts with Zanaflex?

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What are the warnings of Zanaflex?

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What are the precautions of Zanaflex?

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What are the side effects of Zanaflex?

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What should I look out for while using Zanaflex?

Zanaflex is contraindicated in patientstaking potent inhibitors of CYP1A2, such as fluvoxamine or ciprofloxacin [ ].


What might happen if I take too much Zanaflex?

A review of the safety surveillance database revealed cases of intentional and accidental Zanaflex overdose. Some of the cases resulted in fatality and many of the intentional overdoses were with multiple drugs including CNS depressants. The clinical manifestations of tizanidine overdose were consistent with its known pharmacology. In the majority of cases a decrease in sensorium was observed including lethargy, somnolence, confusion and coma. Depressed cardiac function is also observed including most often bradycardia and hypotension. Respiratory depression is another common feature of tizanidine overdose.

Should overdose occur, basic steps to ensure the adequacy of an airway and the monitoring of cardiovascular and respiratory systems should be undertaken. Tizanidine is a lipid-soluble drug, which is only slightly soluble in water and methanol. Therefore, dialysis is not likely to be an efficient method of removing drug from the body. In general, symptoms resolve within one to three days following discontinuation of tizanidine and administration of appropriate therapy. Due to the similar mechanism of action, symptoms and management of tizanidine overdose are similar to that following clonidine overdose. For the most recent information concerning the management of overdose, contact a poison control center.


How should I store and handle Zanaflex?

StorageStore at 20°C to 25°C (68°F to 77°F); excursions permitted between 15°C and 30°C (59°F and 86°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].StorageStore at 20°C to 25°C (68°F to 77°F); excursions permitted between 15°C and 30°C (59°F and 86°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].Furosemide Oral Solution USP, 10 mg/mL is supplied as orange-flavored liquid in plastic bottles of 2 fl oz (60 mL) accompanied by a graduated dropper and plastic bottles of 4 fl oz (120 mL) accompanied by a graduated dispensing spoon.2 fl oz (60 mL)             NDC 60432-613-604 fl oz (120 mL)           NDC 60432-613-04Furosemide Oral Solution USP, 10 mg/mL is supplied as orange-flavored liquid in plastic bottles of 2 fl oz (60 mL) accompanied by a graduated dropper and plastic bottles of 4 fl oz (120 mL) accompanied by a graduated dispensing spoon.2 fl oz (60 mL)             NDC 60432-613-604 fl oz (120 mL)           NDC 60432-613-04Furosemide Oral Solution USP, 10 mg/mL is supplied as orange-flavored liquid in plastic bottles of 2 fl oz (60 mL) accompanied by a graduated dropper and plastic bottles of 4 fl oz (120 mL) accompanied by a graduated dispensing spoon.2 fl oz (60 mL)             NDC 60432-613-604 fl oz (120 mL)           NDC 60432-613-04


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Clinical Information

Chemical Structure

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Clinical Pharmacology

Tizanidine is a central alpha-2-adrenergic receptor agonist and presumably reduces spasticity by increasing presynaptic inhibition of motor neurons. The effects of tizanidine are greatest on polysynaptic pathways. The overall effect of these actions is thought to reduce facilitation of spinal motor neurons.

Non-Clinical Toxicology
Zanaflex is contraindicated in patientstaking potent inhibitors of CYP1A2, such as fluvoxamine or ciprofloxacin [ ].

Furosemide may increase the ototoxic potential of aminoglycoside antibiotics, especially in the presence of impaired renal function. Except in life-threatening situations, avoid this combination.

Furosemide should not be used concomitantly with ethacrynic acid because of the possibility of ototoxicity.

Patients receiving high doses of salicylates concomitantly with furosemide, as in rheumatic disease, may experience salicylate toxicity at lower doses because of competitive renal excretory sites.

There is a risk of ototoxic effects if cisplatin and furosemide are given concomitantly. In addition, nephrotoxicity of nephrotoxic drugs such as cisplatin may be enhanced if furosemide is not given in lower doses and with positive fluid balance when used to achieve forced diuresis during cisplatin treatment.

Furosemide has a tendency to antagonize the skeletal muscle relaxing effect of tubocurarine and may potentiate the action of succinylcholine.

Lithium generally should not be given with diuretics because they reduce lithium's renal clearance and add a high risk of lithium toxicity.

Furosemide combined with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers may lead to severe hypotension and deterioration in renal function, including renal failure. An interruption or reduction in the dosage of furosemide, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, or angiotensin receptor blockers may be necessary.

Potentiation occurs with ganglionic or peripheral adrenergic blocking drugs.

Furosemide may decrease arterial responsiveness to norepinephrine. However, norepinephrine may still be used effectively.

Simultaneous administration of sucralfate and furosemide tablets may reduce the natriuretic and antihypertensive effects of furosemide. Patients receiving both drugs should be observed closely to determine if the desired diuretic and/or antihypertensive effect of furosemide is achieved. The intake of furosemide and sucralfate should be separated by at least two hours.

In isolated cases, intravenous administration of furosemide within 24 hours of taking chloral hydrate may lead to flushing, sweating attacks, restlessness, nausea, increase in blood pressure, and tachycardia. Use of furosemide concomitantly with chloral hydrate is therefore not recommended.

Phenytoin interferes directly with renal action of furosemide. There is evidence that treatment with phenytoin leads to decrease intestinal absorption of furosemide, and consequently to lower peak serum furosemide concentrations.

Methotrexate and other drugs that, like furosemide, undergo significant renal tubular secretion may reduce the effect of furosemide. Conversely, furosemide may decrease renal elimination of other drugs that undergo tubular secretion. High-dose treatment of both furosemide and these other drugs may result in elevated serum levels of these drugs and may potentiate their toxicity as well as the toxicity of furosemide.

Furosemide can increase the risk of cephalosporin-induced nephrotoxicity even in the setting of minor or transient renal impairment.

Concomitant use of cyclosporine and furosemide is associated with increased risk of gouty arthritis secondary to furosemide-induced hyperurecemia and cyclosporine impairment of renal urate excretion. High doses (>80 mg) of furosemide may inhibit the binding of thyroid hormones to carrier proteins and result in transient increase in free thyroid hormones, followed by an overall decrease in total thyroid hormone levels.

One study in six subjects demonstrated that the combination of furosemide and acetylsalicylic acid temporarily reduced creatinine clearance in patients with chronic renal insufficiency. There are case reports of patients who developed increased BUN, serum creatinine and serum potassium levels, and weight gain when furosemide was used in conjunction with NSAIDs.

Literature reports indicate that coadministration of indomethacin may reduce the natriuretic and antihypertensive effects of furosemide in some patients by inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis. Indomethacin may also affect plasma renin levels, aldosterone excretion, and renin profile evaluation. Patients receiving both indomethacin and furosemide should be observed closely to determine if the desired diuretic and/or antihypertensive effect of furosemide is achieved.

Tizanidine is an α -adrenergic agonist that can produce hypotension. Syncope has been reported in the post marketing setting. The chance of significant hypotension may possibly be minimized by titration of the dose and by focusing attention on signs and symptoms of hypotension prior to dose advancement. In addition, patients moving from a supine to fixed upright position may be at increased risk for hypotension and orthostatic effects.

Monitor for hypotension when Zanaflex is used in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive therapy. It is not recommended that Zanaflex be used with other α -adrenergic agonists. Clinically significant hypotension (decreases in both systolic and diastolic pressure) has been reported with concomitant administration of either fluvoxamine or ciprofloxacin and single doses of 4 mg of Zanaflex. Therefore, concomitant use of Zanaflex with fluvoxamine or with ciprofloxacin, potent inhibitors of CYP1A2, is contraindicated [ and ].

The following adverse reactions are described elsewhere in other sections of the prescribing information:

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Reference

This information is obtained from the National Institute of Health's Standard Packaging Label drug database.
"https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/"

While we update our database periodically, we cannot guarantee it is always updated to the latest version.

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Professional

Clonazepam Description Each single-scored tablet, for oral administration, contains 0.5 mg, 1 mg, or 2 mg Clonazepam, USP, a benzodiazepine. Each tablet also contains corn starch, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and povidone. Clonazepam tablets USP 0.5 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake. Clonazepam tablets USP 1 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake, as well as FD&C Blue No. 1 Aluminum Lake. Chemically, Clonazepam, USP is 5-(o-chlorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-7-nitro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one. It is a light yellow crystalline powder. It has the following structural formula: C15H10ClN3O3 M.W. 315.72
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Tips

Tips

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Interactions

Interactions

A total of 440 drugs (1549 brand and generic names) are known to interact with Imbruvica (ibrutinib). 228 major drug interactions (854 brand and generic names) 210 moderate drug interactions (691 brand and generic names) 2 minor drug interactions (4 brand and generic names) Show all medications in the database that may interact with Imbruvica (ibrutinib).