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bisoprolol fumarate and hydrochlorothiazide

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Overview

What is Ziac?

ZIAC (bisoprolol fumarate and hydrochlorothiazide) is indicated for the treatment of hypertension. It combines two antihypertensive agents in a once-daily dosage: a synthetic beta-selective (cardioselective) adrenoceptor blocking agent (bisoprolol fumarate) and a benzothiadiazine diuretic (hydrochlorothiazide).

Bisoprolol fumarate is chemically described as (±)-1-[4-[[2-(1-methylethoxy)ethoxy]methyl]phenoxy]-3-[(1-methylethyl)amino]-2-propanol()-2-butenedioate (2:1) (salt). It possesses an asymmetric carbon atom in its structure and is provided as a racemic mixture. The S(-) enantiomer is responsible for most of the beta-blocking activity. Its empirical formula is (CHNO)•CHOand it has a molecular weight of 766.97. Its structural formula is:

Bisoprolol fumarate is a white crystalline powder, approximately equally hydrophilic and lipophilic, and readily soluble in water, methanol, ethanol, and chloroform.

Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) is 6-Chloro-3,4-dihydro-2-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine-7-sulfonamide 1,1-dioxide. It is a white, or practically white, practically odorless crystalline powder. It is slightly soluble in water, sparingly soluble in dilute sodium hydroxide solution, freely soluble in n-butylamine and dimethylformamide, sparingly soluble in methanol, and insoluble in ether, chloroform, and dilute mineral acids. Its empirical formula is CHClNOS and it has a molecular weight of 297.73. Its structural formula is:

Each ZIAC-2.5 mg/6.25 mg tablet for oral administration contains:

Bisoprolol fumarate…………………………………………..2.5 mg

Hydrochlorothiazide………………………………………..6.25 mg

Each ZIAC-5 mg/6.25 mg tablet for oral administration contains:

Bisoprolol fumarate……………………………………………5 mg

Hydrochlorothiazide………………………………………..6.25 mg

Each ZIAC-10 mg/6.25 mg tablet for oral administration contains:

Bisoprolol fumarate…………………………………………...10 mg

Hydrochlorothiazide………………………………………..6.25 mg

Inactive ingredients include Corn Starch, Dibasic Calcium Phosphate, Hypromellose, Magnesium Stearate, Microcrystalline Cellulose, Polyethylene Glycol, Polysorbate 80, and Titanium Dioxide. The 10 mg/6.25mg tablet also contains Colloidal Silicon Dioxide. The 5 mg/6.25 mg tablet also contains Colloidal Silicon Dioxide, and Red and Yellow Iron Oxide. The 2.5 mg/6.25 mg tablet also contains Crospovidone, Pregelatinized Starch, and Yellow Iron Oxide.



What does Ziac look like?



What are the available doses of Ziac?

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What should I talk to my health care provider before I take Ziac?

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How should I use Ziac?

ZIAC (bisoprolol fumarate and hydrochlorothiazide) is indicated in the management of hypertension.

Bisoprolol is an effective treatment of hypertension in once-daily doses of 2.5 to 40 mg, while hydrochlorothiazide is effective in doses of 12.5 to 50 mg. In clinical trials of bisoprolol/hydrochlorothiazide combination therapy using bisoprolol doses of 2.5 to 20 mg and hydrochlorothiazide doses of 6.25 to 25 mg, the antihypertensive effects increased with increasing doses of either component.

The adverse effects (see ) of bisoprolol are a mixture of dose-dependent phenomena (primarily bradycardia, diarrhea, asthenia, and fatigue) and dose-independent phenomena (eg, occasional rash); those of hydrochlorothiazide are a mixture of dose-dependent phenomena (primarily hypokalemia) and dose-independent phenomena (eg, possibly pancreatitis); the dose-dependent phenomena for each being much more common than the dose-independent phenomena. The latter consist of those few that are truly idiosyncratic in nature or those that occur with such low frequency that a dose relationship may be difficult to discern. Therapy with a combination of bisoprolol and hydrochlorothiazide will be associated with both sets of dose-independent adverse effects, and to minimize these, it may be appropriate to begin combination therapy only after a patient has failed to achieve the desired effect with monotherapy. On the other hand, regimens that combine low doses of bisoprolol and hydrochlorothiazide should produce minimal dose-dependent adverse effects, eg, bradycardia, diarrhea, asthenia and fatigue, and minimal dose-dependent adverse metabolic effects, ie, decreases in serum potassium (see ).


What interacts with Ziac?

ZIAC is contraindicated in patients in cardiogenic shock, overt cardiac failure (see ), second or third degree AV block, marked sinus bradycardia, anuria, and hypersensitivity to either component of this product or to other sulfonamide-derived drugs.



What are the warnings of Ziac?

Cardiac Failure

In general, beta-blocking agents should be avoided in patients with overt congestive failure. However, in some patients with compensated cardiac failure, it may be necessary to utilize these agents. In such situations, they must be used cautiously.

Patients Without a History of Cardiac Failure

Continued depression of the myocardium with beta-blockers can, in some patients, precipitate cardiac failure. At the first signs or symptoms of heart failure, discontinuation of ZIAC should be considered. In some cases ZIAC therapy can be continued while heart failure is treated with other drugs.

Abrupt Cessation of Therapy

Exacerbations of angina pectoris and, in some instances, myocardial infarction or ventricular arrhythmia, have been observed in patients with coronary artery disease following abrupt cessation of therapy with beta-blockers. Such patients should, therefore, be cautioned against interruption or discontinuation of therapy without the physician’s advice. Even in patients without overt coronary artery disease, it may be advisable to taper therapy with ZIAC (bisoprolol fumarate and hydrochlorothiazide) over approximately 1 week with the patient under careful observation. If withdrawal symptoms occur, beta-blocking agent therapy should be reinstituted, at least temporarily.

Peripheral Vascular Disease

Beta-blockers can precipitate or aggravate symptoms of arterial insufficiency in patients with peripheral vascular disease. Caution should be exercised in such individuals.

Bronchospastic Disease

PATIENTS WITH BRONCHOSPASTIC PULMONARY DISEASE SHOULD, IN GENERAL, NOT RECEIVE BETA-BLOCKERS. Because of the relative beta-selectivity of bisoprolol fumarate, ZIAC may be used with caution in patients with bronchospastic disease who do not respond to, or who cannot tolerate other antihypertensive treatment. Since beta-selectivity is not absolute, the lowest possible dose of ZIAC should be used. A beta agonist (bronchodilator) should be made available.

Major Surgery

Chronically administered beta-blocking therapy should not be routinely withdrawn prior to major surgery; however, the impaired ability of the heart to respond to reflex adrenergic stimuli may augment the risks of general anesthesia and surgical procedures.

Diabetes and Hyopglycemia

Beta-blockers may mask some of the manifestations of hypoglycemia, particularly tachycardia. Nonselective beta-blockers may potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and delay recovery of serum glucose levels. Because of its beta-selectivity, this is less likely with bisoprolol fumarate. However, patients subject to spontaneous hypoglycemia, or diabetic patients receiving insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents, should be cautioned about these possibilities. Also, latent diabetes mellitus may become manifest and diabetic patients given thiazides may require adjustment of their insulin dose. Because of the very low dose of HCTZ employed, this may be less likely with ZIAC.

Thyrotoxicosis

Beta-adrenergic blockade may mask clinical signs of hyperthyroidism, such as tachycardia. Abrupt withdrawal of beta-blockade may be followed by an exacerbation of the symptoms of hyperthyroidism or may precipitate thyroid storm.

Renal Disease

Cumulative effects of the thiazides may develop in patients with impaired renal function. In such patients, thiazides may precipitate azotemia. In subjects with creatinine clearance less than 40 mL/min, the plasma half-life of bisoprolol fumarate is increased up to threefold, as compared to healthy subjects. If progressive renal impairment becomes apparent, ZIAC should be discontinued (See ).

Hepatic Disease

ZIAC should be used with caution in patients with impaired hepatic function or progressive liver disease. Thiazides may alter fluid and electrolyte balance, which may precipitate hepatic coma. Also, elimination of bisoprolol fumarate is significantly slower in patients with cirrhosis than in healthy subjects (See ).

Acute Myopia and Secondary Angle-Closure Glaucoma

Hydrochlorothiazide, a sulfonamide, can cause an idiosyncratic reaction, resulting in acute transient myopia and acute angle-closure glaucoma. Symptoms include acute onset of decreased visual acuity or ocular pain and typically occur within hours to weeks of drug initiation. Untreated acute angle-closure glaucoma can lead to permanent vision loss. The primary treatment is to discontinue hydrochlorothiazide as rapidly as possible. Prompt medical or surgical treatments may need to be considered if the intraocular pressure remains uncontrolled. Risk factors for developing acute angle-closure glaucoma may include a history of sulfonamide or penicillin allergy.


What are the precautions of Ziac?

General

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Although the probability of developing hypokalemia is reduced with ZIAC because of the very low dose of HCTZ employed, periodic determination of serum electrolytes should be performed, and patients should be observed for signs of fluid or electrolyte disturbances, i.e., hyponatremia, hypochloremic alkalosis, hypokalemia, and hypomagnesemia. Thiazides have been shown to increase the urinary excretion of magnesium; this may result in hypomagnesemia.

Warning signs or symptoms of fluid and electrolyte imbalance include dryness of mouth, thirst, weakness, lethargy, drowsiness, restlessness, muscle pains or cramps, muscular fatigue, hypotension, oliguria, tachycardia, and gastrointestinal disturbances such as nausea and vomiting.

Hypokalemia may develop, especially with brisk diuresis when severe cirrhosis is present, during concomitant use of corticosteroids or adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) or after prolonged therapy. Interference with adequate oral electrolyte intake will also contribute to hypokalemia. Hypokalemia and hypomagnesemia can provoke ventricular arrhythmias or sensitize or exaggerate the response of the heart to the toxic effects of digitalis. Hypokalemia may be avoided or treated by potassium supplementation or increased intake of potassium-rich foods.

Dilutional hyponatremia may occur in edematous patients in hot weather; appropriate therapy is water restriction rather than salt administration, except in rare instances when the hyponatremia is life threatening. In actual salt depletion, appropriate replacement is the therapy of choice.

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Calcium excretion is decreased by thiazides, and pathologic changes in the parathyroid glands, with hypercalcemia and hypophosphatemia, have been observed in a few patients on prolonged thiazide therapy.

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Hyperuricemia or acute gout may be precipitated in certain patients receiving thiazide diuretics. Bisoprolol fumarate, alone or in combination with HCTZ, has been associated with increases in uric acid. However, in U.S. clinical trials, the incidence of treatment-related increases in uric acid was higher during therapy with HCTZ 25 mg (25%) than with B/H 6.25 mg (10%). Because of the very low dose of HCTZ employed, hyperuricemia may be less likely with ZIAC.

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ZIAC may potentiate the action of other antihypertensive agents used concomitantly. ZIAC should not be combined with other beta-blocking agents. Patients receiving catecholamine-depleting drugs, such as reserpine or guanethidine, should be closely monitored because the added beta-adrenergic blocking action of bisoprolol fumarate may produce excessive reduction of sympathetic activity. In patients receiving concurrent therapy with clonidine, if therapy is to be discontinued, it is suggested that ZIAC be discontinued for several days before the withdrawal of clonidine.

ZIAC should be used with caution when myocardial depressants or inhibitors of AV conduction, such as certain calcium antagonists (particularly of the phenylalkylamine [verapamil] and benzothiazepine [diltiazem] classes), or antiarrhythmic agents, such as disopyramide, are used concurrently.

Both digitalis glycosides and beta-blockers slow atrioventricular conduction and decrease heart rate. Concomitant use can increase the risk of bradycardia.

Bisoprolol Fumarate

Concurrent use of rifampin increases the metabolic clearance of bisoprolol fumarate, shortening its elimination half-life. However, initial dose modification is generally not necessary.

Pharmacokinetic studies document no clinically relevant interactions with other agents given concomitantly, including thiazide diuretics and cimetidine. There was no effect of bisoprolol fumarate on prothrombin times in patients on stable doses of warfarin.

While taking beta-blockers, patients with a history of severe anaphylactic reaction to a variety of allergens may be more reactive to repeated challenge, either accidental, diagnostic, or therapeutic. Such patients may be unresponsive to the usual doses of epinephrine used to treat allergic reactions.

Hydrochlorothiazide

When given concurrently the following drugs may interact with thiazide diuretics.

Alcohol, barbiturates, or narcotics - potentiation of orthostatic hypotension may occur.

Antidiabetic drugs (oral agents and insulin) - dosage adjustment of the antidiabetic drug may be required.

Other antihypertensive drugs - additive effect or potentiation.

Cholestyramine and colestipol resins - Absorption of hydrochlorothiazide is impaired in the presence of anionic exchange resins. Single doses of cholestyramine and colestipol resins bind the hydrochlorothiazide and reduce its absorption in the gastrointestinal tract by up to 85 percent and 43 percent, respectively.

Corticosteroids, ACTH - Intensified electrolyte depletion, particularly hypokalemia.

Pressor amines (e.g., norepinephrine) - possible decreased response to pressor amines but not sufficient to preclude their use.

Skeletal muscle relaxants, nondepolarizing (e.g., tubocurarine) - possible increased responsiveness to the muscle relaxant.

Lithium - generally should not be given with diuretics. Diuretic agents reduce the renal clearance of lithium and add a high risk of lithium toxicity. Refer to the package insert for lithium preparations before use of such preparations with ZIAC.

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs - In some patients, the administration of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent can reduce the diuretic, natriuretic, and antihypertensive effects of loop, potassium sparing, and thiazide diuretics. Therefore, when ZIAC and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents are used concomitantly, the patient should be observed closely to determine if the desired effect of the diuretic is obtained.

In patients receiving thiazides, sensitivity reactions may occur with or without a history of allergy or bronchial asthma. Photosensitivity reactions and possible exacerbation or activation of systemic lupus erythematosus have been reported in patients receiving thiazides. The antihypertensive effects of thiazides may be enhanced in the post-sympathectomy patient.

Based on reports involving thiazides, ZIAC (bisoprolol fumarate and hydrochlorothiazide) may decrease serum levels of protein-bound iodine without signs of thyroid disturbance.

Because it includes a thiazide, ZIAC should be discontinued before carrying out tests for parathyroid function (see ).


What are the side effects of Ziac?

ZIAC

Bisoprolol fumarate/HCTZ 6.25 mg is well tolerated in most patients. Most adverse effects (AEs) have been mild and transient. In more than 65,000 patients treated worldwide with bisoprolol fumarate, occurrences of bronchospasm have been rare. Discontinuation rates for AEs were similar for bisoprolol fumarate/HCTZ 6.25 mg and placebo-treated patients.

In the United States, 252 patients received bisoprolol fumarate (2.5, 5, 10, or 40 mg)/HCTZ 6.25 mg and 144 patients received placebo in two controlled trials. In Study 1, bisoprolol fumarate 5/HCTZ 6.25 mg was administered for 4 weeks. In Study 2, bisoprolol fumarate 2.5, 10, or 40/HCTZ 6.25 mg was administered for 12 weeks. All adverse experiences, whether drug related or not, and drug related adverse experiences in patients treated with bisoprolol fumarate 2.5-10/HCTZ 6.25 mg, reported during comparable, 4 week treatment periods by at least 2% of bisoprolol fumarate/HCTZ 6.25 mg-treated patients (plus additional selected adverse experiences) are presented in the following table:

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Bisoprolol Fumarate

In clinical trials worldwide, or in postmarketing experience, a variety of other AEs, in addition to those listed above, have been reported. While in many cases it is not known whether a causal relationship exists between bisoprolol and these AEs, they are listed to alert the physician to a possible relationship.

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Unsteadiness, dizziness, vertigo, headache, syncope, paresthesia, hypoesthesia, hyperesthesia, sleep disturbance/vivid dreams, insomnia, somnolence, depression, anxiety/restlessness, decreased concentration/memory.

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Bradycardia, palpitations and other rhythm disturbances, cold extremities, claudication, hypotension, orthostatic hypotension, chest pain, congestive heart failure, dyspnea on exertion.

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Gastric/epigastric/abdominal pain, peptic ulcer, gastritis, dyspepsia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, dry mouth.

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Arthralgia, muscle/joint pain, back/neck pain, muscle cramps, twitching/tremor.

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Rash, acne, eczema, psoriasis, skin irritation, pruritus, purpura, flushing, sweating, alopecia, dermatitis, exfoliative dermatitis (very rarely), cutaneous vasculitis.

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Visual disturbances, ocular pain/pressure, abnormal lacrimation, tinnitus, decreased hearing, earache, taste abnormalities.

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Gout.

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Asthma, bronchospasm, bronchitis, dyspnea, pharyngitis, rhinitis, sinusitis, URI (upper respiratory infection).

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Decreased libido/impotence, Peyronie’s disease (very rarely), cystitis, renal colic, polyuria.

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Fatigue, asthenia, chest pain, malaise, edema, weight gain, angioedema.

In addition, a variety of adverse effects have been reported with other beta-adrenergic blocking agents and should be considered potential adverse effects:

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Reversible mental depression progressing to catatonia, hallucinations, an acute reversible syndrome characterized by disorientation to time and place, emotional lability, slightly clouded sensorium.

Allergic

Fever, combined with aching and sore throat, laryngospasm, and respiratory distress.

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Agranulocytosis, thrombocytopenia.

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Mesenteric arterial thrombosis and ischemic colitis.

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The oculomucocutaneous syndrome associated with the beta-blocker practolol has not been reported with bisoprolol fumarate during investigational use or extensive foreign marketing experience.

Hydrochlorothiazide

The following adverse experiences, in addition to those listed in the above table, have been reported with hydrochlorothiazide (generally with doses of 25 mg or greater).

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Weakness.

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Vertigo, paresthesia, restlessness.

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Orthostatic hypotension (may be potentiated by alcohol, barbiturates, or narcotics).

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Anorexia, gastric irritation, cramping, constipation, jaundice (intrahepatic cholestatic jaundice), pancreatitis, cholecystitis, sialadenitis, dry mouth.

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Muscle spasm.

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Purpura, photosensitivity, rash, urticaria, necrotizing angiitis (vasculitis and cutaneous vasculitis), fever, respiratory distress including pneumonitis and pulmonary edema, anaphylactic reactions.

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Transient blurred vision, xanthopsia.

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Gout.

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Sexual dysfunction, renal failure, renal dysfunction, interstitial nephritis.

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Erythema multiforme including Stevens-Johnson syndrome, exfoliative dermatitis including toxic epidermal necrolysis.

Laboratory Abnormalities

ZIAC

Because of the low dose of hydrochlorothiazide in ZIAC (bisoprolol fumarate and hydrochlorothiazide), adverse metabolic effects with bisoprolol fumarate/HCTZ 6.25 mg are less frequent and of smaller magnitude than with HCTZ 25 mg. Laboratory data on serum potassium from the U.S. placebo-controlled trials are shown in the following table:

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Other laboratory abnormalities that have been reported with the individual components are listed below.

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Bisoprolol Fumarate

In clinical trials, the most frequently reported laboratory change was an increase in serum triglycerides, but this was not a consistent finding.

Sporadic liver test abnormalities have been reported. In the U.S. controlled trials experience with bisoprolol fumarate treatment for 4-12 weeks, the incidence of concomitant elevations in SGOT and SGPT from 1 to 2 times normal was 3.9%, compared to 2.5% for placebo. No patient had concomitant elevations greater than twice normal.

In the long-term, uncontrolled experience with bisoprolol fumarate treatment for 6-18 months, the incidence of one or more concomitant elevations in SGOT and SGPT from 1 to 2 times normal was 6.2%. The incidence of multiple occurrences was 1.9%. For concomitant elevations in SGOT and SGPT of greater than twice normal, the incidence was 1.5%. The incidence of multiple occurrences was 0.3%. In many cases these elevations were attributed to underlying disorders, or resolved during continued treatment with bisoprolol fumarate.

Other laboratory changes included small increases in uric acid, creatinine, BUN, serum potassium, glucose, and phosphorus and decreases in WBC and platelets. There have been occasional reports of eosinophilia. These were generally not of clinical importance and rarely resulted in discontinuation of bisoprolol fumarate.

As with other beta-blockers, ANA conversions have also been reported on bisoprolol fumarate. About 15% of patients in long-term studies converted to a positive titer, although about one-third of these patients subsequently reconverted to a negative titer while on continued therapy.

Hydrochlorothiazide

Hyperglycemia, glycosuria, hyperuricemia, hypokalemia and other electrolyte imbalances (see ), hyperlipidemia, hypercalcemia, leukopenia, agranulocytosis, thrombocytopenia, aplastic anemia, and hemolytic anemia have been associated with HCTZ therapy.


What should I look out for while using Ziac?

ZIAC is contraindicated in patients in cardiogenic shock, overt cardiac failure (see ), second or third degree AV block, marked sinus bradycardia, anuria, and hypersensitivity to either component of this product or to other sulfonamide-derived drugs.


What might happen if I take too much Ziac?

There are limited data on overdose with ZIAC. However, several cases of overdose with bisoprolol fumarate have been reported (maximum: 2000 mg). Bradycardia and/or hypotension were noted. Sympathomimetic agents were given in some cases, and all patients recovered.

The most frequently observed signs expected with overdosage of a beta-blocker are bradycardia and hypotension. Lethargy is also common, and with severe overdoses, delirium, coma, convulsions, and respiratory arrest have been reported to occur. Congestive heart failure, bronchospasm, and hypoglycemia may occur, particularly in patients with underlying conditions. With thiazide diuretics, acute intoxication is rare. The most prominent feature of overdose is acute loss of fluid and electrolytes. Signs and symptoms include cardiovascular (tachycardia, hypotension, shock), neuromuscular (weakness, confusion, dizziness, cramps of the calf muscles, paresthesia, fatigue, impairment of consciousness), gastrointestinal (nausea, vomiting, thirst), renal (polyuria, oliguria, or anuria [due to hemoconcentration]), and laboratory findings (hypokalemia, hyponatremia, hypochloremia, alkalosis, increased BUN [especially in patients with renal insufficiency]).

If overdosage of ZIAC (bisoprolol fumarate and hydrochlorothiazide) is suspected, therapy with ZIAC should be discontinued and the patient observed closely. Treatment is symptomatic and supportive; there is no specific antidote. Limited data suggest bisoprolol fumarate is not dialyzable; similarly, there is no indication that hydrochlorothiazide is dialyzable. Suggested general measures include induction of emesis and/or gastric lavage, administration of activated charcoal, respiratory support, correction of fluid and electrolyte imbalance, and treatment of convulsions. Based on the expected pharmacologic actions and recommendations for other beta-blockers and hydrochlorothiazide, the following measures should be considered when clinically warranted:


How should I store and handle Ziac?

Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15° to 30°C (59° to 86°F) [see USP controlled room temperature]. Dispense and keep product in original container. Keep container closed and do not remove desiccant from bottle. Do not break the tablet. Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15° to 30°C (59° to 86°F) [see USP controlled room temperature]. Dispense and keep product in original container. Keep container closed and do not remove desiccant from bottle. Do not break the tablet. ZIAC-2.5 mg/6.25 mg Tablets (bisoprolol fumarate 2.5 mg and hydrochlorothiazide 6.25 mg): Yellow, round, film-coated, unscored tablets. Debossed with stylized b within an engraved heart shape on one side and 47 on the other side, supplied as follows:ZIAC-5 mg/6.25 mg Tablets (bisoprolol fumarate 5 mg and hydrochlorothiazide 6.25 mg): Pink, round, film-coated, unscored tablets. Debossed with stylized b within an engraved heart shape on one side and 50 on the other side, supplied as follows:ZIAC-10 mg/6.25 mg Tablets (bisoprolol fumarate 10 mg and hydrochlorothiazide 6.25 mg): White, round, film-coated, unscored tablets. Debossed with stylized b within an engraved heart shape on one side and 40 on the other side, supplied as follows:ZIAC-2.5 mg/6.25 mg Tablets (bisoprolol fumarate 2.5 mg and hydrochlorothiazide 6.25 mg): Yellow, round, film-coated, unscored tablets. Debossed with stylized b within an engraved heart shape on one side and 47 on the other side, supplied as follows:ZIAC-5 mg/6.25 mg Tablets (bisoprolol fumarate 5 mg and hydrochlorothiazide 6.25 mg): Pink, round, film-coated, unscored tablets. Debossed with stylized b within an engraved heart shape on one side and 50 on the other side, supplied as follows:ZIAC-10 mg/6.25 mg Tablets (bisoprolol fumarate 10 mg and hydrochlorothiazide 6.25 mg): White, round, film-coated, unscored tablets. Debossed with stylized b within an engraved heart shape on one side and 40 on the other side, supplied as follows:ZIAC-2.5 mg/6.25 mg Tablets (bisoprolol fumarate 2.5 mg and hydrochlorothiazide 6.25 mg): Yellow, round, film-coated, unscored tablets. Debossed with stylized b within an engraved heart shape on one side and 47 on the other side, supplied as follows:ZIAC-5 mg/6.25 mg Tablets (bisoprolol fumarate 5 mg and hydrochlorothiazide 6.25 mg): Pink, round, film-coated, unscored tablets. Debossed with stylized b within an engraved heart shape on one side and 50 on the other side, supplied as follows:ZIAC-10 mg/6.25 mg Tablets (bisoprolol fumarate 10 mg and hydrochlorothiazide 6.25 mg): White, round, film-coated, unscored tablets. Debossed with stylized b within an engraved heart shape on one side and 40 on the other side, supplied as follows:


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Clinical Information

Chemical Structure

No Image found
Clinical Pharmacology

Bisoprolol fumarate and HCTZ have been used individually and in combination for the treatment of hypertension. The antihypertensive effects of these agents are additive; HCTZ 6.25 mg significantly increases the antihypertensive effect of bisoprolol fumarate. The incidence of hypokalemia with the bisoprolol fumarate and HCTZ 6.25 mg combination (B/H) is significantly lower than with HCTZ 25 mg. In clinical trials of ZIAC, mean changes in serum potassium for patients treated with ZIAC 2.5/6.25 mg, 5/6.25 mg or 10/6.25 mg or placebo were less than ± 0.1 mEq/L. Mean changes in serum potassium for patients treated with any dose of bisoprolol in combination with HCTZ 25 mg ranged from -0.1 to -0.3 mEq/L.

Bisoprolol fumarate is a beta-selective (cardioselective) adrenoceptor blocking agent without significant membrane stabilizing or intrinsic sympathomimetic activities in its therapeutic dose range. At higher doses (≥ 20 mg) bisoprolol fumarate also inhibits beta-adrenoreceptors located in bronchial and vascular musculature. To retain relative selectivity, it is important to use the lowest effective dose.

Hydrochlorothiazide is a benzothiadiazine diuretic. Thiazides affect renal tubular mechanisms of electrolyte reabsorption and increase excretion of sodium and chloride in approximately equivalent amounts. Natriuresis causes a secondary loss of potassium.

Non-Clinical Toxicology
ZIAC is contraindicated in patients in cardiogenic shock, overt cardiac failure (see ), second or third degree AV block, marked sinus bradycardia, anuria, and hypersensitivity to either component of this product or to other sulfonamide-derived drugs.

BISOPROLOL FUMARATE should not be combined with other beta-blocking agents. Patients receiving catecholamine-depleting drugs, such as reserpine or guanethidine, should be closely monitored, because the added beta-adrenergic blocking action of BISOPROLOL FUMARATE may produce excessive reduction of sympathetic activity. In patients receiving concurrent therapy with clonidine, if therapy is to be discontinued, it is suggested that BISOPROLOL FUMARATE be discontinued for several days before the withdrawal of clonidine.

BISOPROLOL FUMARATE should be used with care when myocardial depressants or inhibitors of AV conduction, such as certain calcium antagonists (particularly of the phenylalkylamine [verapamil] and benzothiazepine [diltiazem] classes), or antiarrhythmic agents, such as disopyramide, are used concurrently.

Both digitalis glycosides and beta-blockers slow atrioventricular conduction and decrease heart rate. Concomitant use can increase the risk of bradycardia.

Concurrent use of rifampin increases the metabolic clearance of BISOPROLOL FUMARATE, resulting in a shortened elimination half-life of BISOPROLOL FUMARATE. However, initial dose modification is generally not necessary. Pharmacokinetic studies document no clinically relevant interactions with other agents given concomitantly, including thiazide diuretics and cimetidine. There was no effect of BISOPROLOL FUMARATE on prothrombin time in patients on stable doses of warfarin.

Risk of Anaphylactic Reaction: While taking beta-blockers, patients with a history of severe anaphylactic reaction to a variety of allergens may be more reactive to repeated challenge, either accidental, diagnostic, or therapeutic. Such patients may be unresponsive to the usual doses of epinephrine used to treat allergic reactions.

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Reference

This information is obtained from the National Institute of Health's Standard Packaging Label drug database.
"https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/"

While we update our database periodically, we cannot guarantee it is always updated to the latest version.

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Professional

Clonazepam Description Each single-scored tablet, for oral administration, contains 0.5 mg, 1 mg, or 2 mg Clonazepam, USP, a benzodiazepine. Each tablet also contains corn starch, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and povidone. Clonazepam tablets USP 0.5 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake. Clonazepam tablets USP 1 mg contain Yellow D&C No. 10 Aluminum Lake, as well as FD&C Blue No. 1 Aluminum Lake. Chemically, Clonazepam, USP is 5-(o-chlorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-7-nitro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one. It is a light yellow crystalline powder. It has the following structural formula: C15H10ClN3O3 M.W. 315.72
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Tips

Tips

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Interactions

Interactions

A total of 440 drugs (1549 brand and generic names) are known to interact with Imbruvica (ibrutinib). 228 major drug interactions (854 brand and generic names) 210 moderate drug interactions (691 brand and generic names) 2 minor drug interactions (4 brand and generic names) Show all medications in the database that may interact with Imbruvica (ibrutinib).